Check-list of The Birds of The State of Veracruz, México

A Partially Annotated and Taxonomic Checklist of

The Birds of The State of Veracruz, Mexico

By W. J. Schaldach, Jr. 1998-2003


Key to the letter symbols:

Biological Status:

NM =     northern migrant, wintering in the State.

P =          pelagic – normally seen well offshore, at sea.

R =          resident, presumed to be sedentary, with breeding populations.

R/NM =  species with resident populations in the State[nn1] , but many more individuals seen

                in  winter Nov.[nn2]  – March.

SR =       summer resident (intra-tropical migrant).  In some species, the bulk of the

               population withdraws, with a few winter records.  In others, WJS had no

               winter records.

T =          northern migrant, transient through the State.  (On passage usually late August  

                through October and again late March through May, often to early June).

                The northern migrants pass through the State all winter, moving on toCentral

                or South America.

V =          vagrant – storm-blown, over-shooting migrants, or notorious wanderers.

WS =


CF = in Los Tuxtlas:  sweet gum and evergreen oak zone; in western mountains (Sierra Madre Oriental) the zone above the humid tropical forest and below the arid pine-oak forest.

Co = coastal beaches, sand dunes, lagoons and estuaries, especially mud flats.

H = “humedales” = wetlands – swamps, marshes, swamp forest and mangroves, river banks, and lakes.

HF = humid evergreen forest, extending along the whole western mountains above the more or less arid coastal plain.

O = open areas = fields, overgrown pastures, with scattered shrubs & trees, tree hedgerows.

POF = forest above the humid tropical forest on the western mountains, heights varying between 1500 & 2720 ms.[nn3]   The higher forest consists mainly of pines, while the lower forest consists of mixed pine & oaks, with oaks predominating in the lowest zone.

RF = rainforest – only in S.E. (Los Tuxtlas and Uxpanapa regions).

S = mixed woodlands, second-growth, and thickets.  (Called “matas” in Veracruz).


Abundance[p4] :

a = abundant = more than 100 birds of a species in 8 hours.

c = common = more than 50 birds of a species in 8 hours.

fc[p5]  = fairly common = less than 30 birds of a species in 8 hours.

u = uncommon = less than 10 birds of a species in 8 hours.

r = rare = 1 – 3 birds of a species in 8 hours.

v[nn6]  = Good luck!  Remember always:  birds have wings and frequently use them!




ARP = Allan R. Phillips

D. & D. [p7] =



KW = Kevin Winker


The Minn. group =

MLZ = Moore Laboratory of Zoology, Los Angeles.

PEP = B. Patricia Escalante Pliego

PW =




SH =

SNGH = Steven N. G. Howell

SW =

WB =

WJS = William J. Schaldach, Jr.

WR =


Explanation of some Spanish terms:

“norte” – Winds …

“pajarero” =

“suradas” – Winds which blow from the Gulf of Tehauntepec north, across the Isthmus Gap, after every strong “norte” ceases to blow.

Explanation of some Latin terms:

auctorum =

cf. = “compare” – used to indicate ? in scientific names

contra = “as opposed to …”, “in contradiction to …”

fide = faithfully reported by …

incertae sedis =

nec = not …

ordo novus = new Order

Typographical indications:

The abundance abbreviations are in ? font[p8] .

The habitat abbreviations are in ? font.

The biological abbreviations are in ? font.

Latin words have been italicized.

Spanish words have been quoted, except for the Spanish names of the birds[p9] .

The Spanish names of the birds are in Century Gothic font[p10] .

The English names of the birds are in Tahoma[p11]  font.

A discoverer’s name in parentheses indicates …[p12] 


Other abbreviations, acronyms and terms commonly used in this manuscript:

auct. (see auctorum under “Latin Terms” below)

FW =

m.[p13]  = meters

Minn. (see “The Minn. group” above)

pers. comm. = personal commentary.

River of Raptors” = the annual migration of raptors in the late summer.  Because of the raptors’ reluctance to fly over water, and their preference to coast along the “thermals” more common to flatlands, the State’s unique geology provides it with one of the world’s most awesome displays of nature.  The mountains to the west and the coastline to the east cause a “bottleneck” through which literally thousands of North America’s migrating raptors pass daily during the August migration.

SL = sea level.

S. L. P. =

spec. = specimen

TBL = to be looked for.  More field study needed to determine status.

? = more field-work is needed for verification.




Order Tinamiformes

Family Tinamidae


1.           Tinamus major percautus Van Tyne 1935.  nec Tinamus major robustus Sclater and Salvin 1868, contra AOU 1983 & suppl.   Great Tinamou.  Tinamú Mayor.  R, r, RF only in the Tuxtla and Uxpanapa regions.  For use of this name, contra AOU 1983, see:  Distributional Check-List of the Birds of Mexico, Part I: 9, 1950; Wetmore 1943:  228; and Schaldach, Escalante, and Winker 1997:  94.  This southeastern Mexican subspecies is grayer throughout than robustus, with darker slate-blue legs.  It is very distinct.

2.           Crypturellus soui meserythrus (Sclater) 1860. Little Tinamou.  Tinamú Menor.  R, r, RF only in Tuxtla and Uxpanapa regions.  Endangered.    

3.           C. cinnamomeus sallaei (Bonaparte) 1856.  Thicket Tinamou.  Tinamú Canelo.  R, fc, RF, HF and S.

a.       C. c. mexicanus (Salvodir) 1895. North Veracruz R

4.           C. boucardi boucardi (Sclater) 1859.  Slaty-breasted Tinamou.  Tinamú Jamuey.  R, u, RF, only in Tuxtla and Uxpanapa regions.  Threatened.


Order Gaviiformes

Family Gaviidae


5.           Gavia immer ellasson Bishop 1921.  Common Loon.  Colimbo Común.  NM,V, r,   2 winter records:  Laguna Tamiahua and Lake Catemaco (published in Howell & Webb 1995:93).  Co & H.


Order Procellariiformes

Family Procellariidae


6.           Puffinus l’herminieri Lesson 1839.  Audubon’s Shearwater.  Pardela de Audubon.  P,V – 19 sightings by WJS off Tuxtla coast during 9 years of fishing.

7.           P. diomedea Cory’s Shearwater.  Pardela de Cory.  PV 1 record by WJS, at sea 15 kms. northeast. of Punta Roca Partida on 22 Sept. 1987.  This is a new record for Veracruz waters and only the 2nd record for Mexico.

8.           P. gravis Greater Shearwater.  Pardela Mayor.  PV 1 record by WJS at sea 17 kms. north-northwest of Punta Zapotitlan off the Tuxtla coast, August 1989.  This is apparently the 1st record for Veracruz waters and the 2nd for Mexico.


Family Oceanitidae, nec Hydrobatidiae, auctorum


9.           Oceanites oceanicus (Kuhl) 1820.  Wilson’s Storm-Petrel.  Paiño de Wilson.  PV  WJS had a total of 19 sightings of this species in 9 years of commercial fishing off the Tuxtla coast, all between 28 July and 12 October; all after hurricanes.

Order Pelecaniformes

Suborder Phaethontes

Family Phaethontidiae


10.       Phaethon aethereus mesonatus Peters 1930.  Red-billed Tropicbird.  Rabijunco Piquirrojo.  PV.  WJS had only 5 sighting in 9 years, all in September and October and all after hurricanes.  These are probably the first records for this pelagic species in Veracruz waters.


Suborder Fregatae

Family Fregatidae


11.       Fregata magnificens rothschildi Mathew 1915.  Magnificent Frigatebird.  Fragata Magnífica.  R, fc, Co, breeds on Isla Terrón on Tuxtla coast, and on islands in lagunas on the whole Veracruz coast.


Suborder Pelecanes

Family Pelecanidae

12.       Pelecanus erythrorhynchus Gmelin 1789.  White Pelican.  Pelicano Blanco.  NM, fc, Co, WS on passage – Sept. – late May.

13.       P. occidentalis carolinensis Gmelin 1789.  Brown Pelican, Pelicano Café.  R, c, breeds in Veracruz only on Isla Terrón, off Tuxtla coast, and other islets in coastal lagoons such as Laguna Tamiahua.


Suborder Sulae

Family Sulidae


14.       Morus bassanus (Linnaeus) 1758.  Northern Gannet.  Bobo Norteño.  PV.  3 Veracruz coastal records:  Laguna Tamiahua (ARP), coastal central Veracruz (Ernesto Ruelas I), and off the coast of the Tuxtlas (WJS).

15.       Sula leucogaster (Boddaert) 1783.  Brown Booby.  Bobo Vientre-blanco.  P, rc visitor to Tuxtla coast waters in non-breeding season (Aug – April).  WJS had 33 sightings offshore while fishing, and 1 sighting from the beach at La Barra de la Laguna de Sontecomapan on 16 Sept., 1996, during the passage of hurricane Roxanne in the Gulf of Mexico.  R. J. Oehlenschlager had 1 sighting from the beach at Jicacal (on 4 Sept., 1974, reported in Winker, et. al. 1992: 701).  This was the first record for Veracruz waters.

16.       Sula dactylatra Lesson 1831.  Masked Booby.  Bobo Enmascarado.  PV – 25 WJS sight records:  29 July to 2 May off Tuxtla coast.  This species was recorded (1 sighting WJS) in Howell & Webb 1995: 122 for Veracruz coast.

17.       Sula sula sula  Linnaeus 1758.  Red-footed Booby.  Bobo Patirrojo.  PV – 1 record, 3 birds seen by WJS from Tuxtla coast after a hurricane on 18 Aug., 1989:   another new record for Veracruz waters.  (This species has nested on Arrecife Alacrán north of Yucatan Peninsula.)  Storm-blown vagrant.


Family Anhingidae


18.       Anhinga anhinga leucoptera (Vieillot) 1816.  Anhinga.  Anhinga Americana.  R/NM – fc, Coastal lagoons & lakes, large rivers.  Migrant flights seen on coast in fall & spring; flights often seen amid migrating hawk streams in the “River of Raptors” on the Veracruz coast.


Family Phalacrocoracidae


19.       Phalacrocorax olivaceus mexicanus (Brandt) 1837.    Nec P. brasilianus AOU et auctorum.  Neotropical Cormorant.  Cormorán Neotropical.  R/NM, Co, H, c. 

20.       P. auritus floridanus (Audobon) 1835.  Double-crested Cormorant.  Cormorán Bicrestado.  NM, u Oct. – end April.  Co, also on Lake Catemaco, and in Papaloapan Delta.


Order Ciconiiformes

Family Ciconiidae


21.       Mycteria americana  Linnaeus 1758.  Wood Stork.  Cigueña Americana.  NM, fc, notorious wanderer;  has bred in Coatzacoalcos marshes (WJS, RSC, and WR – March 1961.  TBL = breeding in marshes of Papalopoapan Delta?

22.       Jabiru mycteria (Lichenstein) 1819.  Jabiru.  Jabirú.  V – 3 records:  WJS = 1 at the Lerdo marshes, Sept. 1969, 1 at the marshes of the Río Chuniapan, an immature, on 2 September, 2001, with a group of birders, and 1 seen at a small coastal lagoon, Laguna La Mancha, north of Cardel by Ernesto Ruelas I of Pronatura.


Family Vulturidae, nec Cathartidae auctorum


23.       Cathartes aura aura (Linnaeus) 1758.  Turkey Vulture.  Aura Cabecirroja.  NM/T, abundant in fall migration in the “River of the Raptors.”  c, almost always seen flying.

a.       C. a. meridionalis Swann 1922, nec C. a. teter Friedman 1933, contra AOU et auctorum.  T – Sept. – Oct., April – May.[p14]   R, c – breeds in the State:  apparently non-migratory.[p15] 

24.       Coragyps atratus (Bechstein) 1793.  Black Vulture.  Zopilote, Nopo in Veracruz.  R, c, usually seen flying or perched in semi-open areas.

25.       Cathartes b. burrovianus  Cassin 1854.  Yellow-headed Vulture.  Aura Cabeciamarilla.  SR, fc, mainly coastal = late Feb. to early Nov.

26.       Sarcorhamphus papa (Linnaeus) 1758.  King Vulture.  Zopilite Rey, Rey Nopo in Veracruz.  Now extinct in Veracruz State except for a small part of the Uxpanapa region.  It was mainly a humid tropical forest bird, eliminated by forest destruction.


Order Cuculiformes

Family Cuculidae (follows Olson 1985)


27.       Coccyzus erythrophthalmus (Wilson) 1811.  Black-billed Cuckoo.  Cuco Piquinegro.  T, u, Aug. – Nov., late April – 5 to 7 June.  Winters in South America.  WS on passage. 

28.       C. a. americanus (Linnaeus) 1758.  Yellow-billed Cuckoo.  Cuco Piquiamarillo.  T, fc.  WS late Aug. – early Dec. and late April to mid-June.  No breeding record yet in the State, but TBL in extreme North.  Winters in South America.  WS on passage.

29.       C. minor continentalis Van Rossem 1934.  Mangrove Cuckoo.  Cuco Manglero.  R, fc. S, scarce in mangroves!

30.       Piaya cayana thermophila  Sclater 1859.  Squirrel Cuckoo.  Cuco Ardilla.  R. c., RF edge, S, mainly lowlands (to 1250 m. in the State).

31.       Crotophaga s. sulcirostris  Swainson 1827.  Groove-billed Ani.  Garrapatero Pijuy.  R, c to a.  O, especially in cow pastures.

32.       Tapera naevia excellens Sclater 1857.  Striped Cuckoo.  Cuco Rayado.  SR, fc. – March to late Oct.  RF, S.  No winter records, at least in Tuxtla region.  WJS has recorded the first host species from Mexico (a domed nest of Synallaxis erythrothorax) in a manuscript currently in progress, “The Avifauna of the Tuxtla region, Veracruz.”  May withdraw only to Uxpanapa region, where 1 seen in mid-Dec. (Pronatura).

33.       Dromococcyx phasianellus rufigalaris  Lawrence 1867.  Pheasant Cuckoo.  Cuco Faisán.  SR.  RF, S.  fc March to November.  No winter records, at least in Tuxtla region.  May withdraw to only Uxpanapa region – 1 record (mid-Dec.) by Pronatura.

34.       Geococcyx v. velox (Wagner) 1836.  Lesser Roadrunner.  Correcaminos Menor.  R, u, o.  Known only from the type and sightings by WJS and Pronatura ornithologists in open grassy areas on the SSW flank of Pico de Orizaba, above the city of Orizaba.


Order Falconiformes

Family Falconidae


35.       Polyborus plancus audubonii Cassin 1865.  Audubon’s Caracara (Crested Caracara = AOU).  Cacaracara Común.  R. fc. O, S, WS – to 2000 m. in W. mountains.

36.       Daptrius americanus guatemalensis Swann 1921.  Red-throated Caracara.  Comecacao.  Formerly r. R., now extinct in Veracruz State and most of Central America.  (See Howell & Webb, 1995:  212.)

37.       Herpetotheres cachinnans chapmani Bangs and Penard 1918.  Laughing Falcon.  Halcón Guaco.  R, fc.  HF, edge.  RF edge, S, O.; WS to 1500 m.  Still fairly common in southeast.

38.       Micrastur ruficollis guerilla Cassin 1848.  Barred Forest-falcon.  Halcón-selvatico Barrado.  R. u. HF, RF.  Only inside the forest.  Now endangered in Tuxtlas and Uxpanapa regions.  Scarce due to forest destruction.

39.       M. semitorquatus naso Lesson 1842.  Collared Forest-falcon.  Halcón-selvatico Collarejo.  R. u – fc.  HF, RF, S.  Often seen in second-growth forest.  Not endangered yet?

40.       Falco peregrinus anatum Bonaparte 1838.  Peregrine Falcon.  Halcón Peregrino.  NM. Fc. WS, to 2500 m. in western mountains, but most common in coastal lowlands = Co.

41.       F. mexicanus Schlegel 1843.  Prairie Falcon.  Halcón Pradeño.  NM. R. O.  Although not shown on the map (Howell & Webb 1995: 219), the Pronatura ornithologists; Sergio Aguilar, Ernesto Ruelas, Octavio Cruz, Jorge Montejo, and also WJS have many sightings in Central Veracruz, from Jalapa south to Fortín.  We deem it a very uncommon winterer, or vagrant, from the plateau.

42.        F. columbarius columbarius Linnaeus 1758.  Merlin.  Esmerejón.  NM, u – r in winter, often seen in small flocks in transient periods:  28 Sept. to 4 Nov. – 25 March to 30 April.  Most winter in Central America.

43.       F. femoralis septentrionalis Todd 1916.  Aplomado Falcon.  Halcón Aplomado.  R. u., O, often H (marshes).  This is another species threatened by man’s agricultural activities.  See map in Howell & Webb 1995: 217 to see the extent of its lost range.

44.       F. deiroleucus Temminck 1825.  Orange-breasted falcon.  Halcón Pechirrufo.  SR, r.  No winter records.  O, H, S.  WJS had 35 sightings in 33 years in Los Tuxtlas between 11 March and 29 August.  Winker et al. 1992: 703 recorded the species for the first time in Veracruz State.  (sighting: 4 March 1985.)

45.       F. rufigularis petoensis Chubb date?.  Bat Falcon.  Halcón Murcielaguero.  R, fc, RF, HF, S edges, O. breeds in mid-Dec. to fledglings seen in first flight in mid-February.

46.       F. s. sparverius Linnaeus 1758.  American Kestrel.  Cernícalo Americano.  NM, fc. O, WS 16 Sept. – 8 May.

a.       F. s. paulus Howe and King 1902.  V – 1 specimen recorded near Jalapa, 14 Oct. 1946.  See Loetscher 1955:  25 – 26.


Order Accipitriformes ordo novus – new Order


(See Olson 1985)

47.       Pandion haliaetus carolinensis (Gmelin) 1788.  Osprey.  Aguililla Pescadora.  NM, fc. Co H. 10 July – 27 May in Los Tuxtlas (WJS).

a.       P. haliaetus ridgwayi Maynard 1888.  V, but has nested and raised fledglings once at Laguna Sontecomapan.  The genus Pandion is known from Early Oligocene (Fayûm, Egypt).


Family Accipitridae


48.       Elanus leucurus leucurus Vieillot 1819.  White-tailed Kite.  Milano Coliblanco.  SR; fc, r in winter; bulk of population withdraws in August – Sept.  Spring arrival date in numbers is 6 March, 1939 (Wetmore, 1943) and 10 March 1988 (WJS) H, O.  Nec E. l. majusculus Bangs and Penard 1920 – which WJS considers a synonym.

49.       Elanoides f. forficatus (Linnaeus) 1758.  Swallow-tailed Kite.  Milano Tijereta.  T, u.  Migrant flights in fall in the “River of Raptors” (Coast of Veracruz).  Few spring records – North American populations winter in South America. 

50.       Leptodon cayennensis mexicanus (Swann) 1922.  Gray-headed Kite.  Milano Cabecigris.  R., u.  RF, HF, S.  Now endangered in Los Tuxtlas and Uxpanapa regions.  See Schaldach, Escalante, and Winker, 1997, for maintenance of Swann’s name as a valid subspecies.

51.       Chondrohierax uncinatus uncinatus (Temminck) 1822.  Hook-billed Kite.  Milano Piquiganchudo.  R, now uncommon in whole State(?) due to habitat loss.  RF edge, S, including mangroves, H.

52.       Busarellus n. nigricollis (Latham) 1790.  Black-collared Hawk.  Aguililla Canela.  R, r. u.  H.  This species is a Kite (Fide Olson 1985).

53.       Harpagus bidentatus fasciatus Lawrence 1868.  Double-toothed Kite.  Milano Bidentado.  R, now rare and endangered, due to habitat loss.  HF, RF – from Presidio region S.E.

54.       Rostrhamus sociabilis major Nelson and Goldman 1933.  Snail-kite.  Gavilán Caracolero.  R, now u in Tuxtlas and elsewhere, due to habitat loss, plus, in Los Tuxtlas by swamp drainage and direct competition by man for its main food, the Apple Snail (Pomacea).

55.       Ictinia misisippiensis (Wilson) 1811.  Mississippi Kite.  Milano de Misisipi.  NM, F – A = fc.  Seen in small flocks, to 100&; seen every fall in small flights amid or over the “River of Raptors” in central coastal Veracruz.  Winters in South America Late Aug. – Mid. October; April – 20 May.  (WJS)  Under the International Rules of Zoological Taxonomy, nobody has the right to change original spellings nor genders, contra AOU.

56.       Ictinia plumbea  (Gmelin) 1788.  Plumbeus Kite.  Milano Plomizo.  SR, fc March – Oct., no winter records; winters in South America.  RF edge, HF edge, S, A.

57.       Accipiter bicolor fidens Bangs and Penard 1918.  Bicolored Hawk.  Gavilán Bicolor.  SR, r, at least in Tuxtlas.  RF, HF, S.  Seldom seen outside forest.  Some winter on Pacific Coast, in Oaxaca (WJS sightings) lat March – Oct.

58.       Accipiter cooperii (Bonaparte) 1828.  Cooper’s Hawk.  Gavilan de Cooper.  NM, fc, S, O.  Earliest date in Tuxtlas: 17 Sept – latest 30 May, WJS.  Seen more often in open than following species.

59.       Accipiter striatus velox (Wilson) 1812.  Sharpshinned Hawk.  Gavilán Pajarero.  NM, fc.  2 Oct. – 28 April.  WS in transit, winters in RF, HF, S.

a.       A. s. suttoni Van Rossem 1939.  R – u, POF, western mountains – Mt. Orizaba, Cofre de Perote, near Huayacocotla, SW of Zacualpilla (WJS).

60.       Buteogallus a. anthracinus Deppe 1830.  Common Black Hawk.  Aguililla Negra Menor.  R, c.  S, near water; H, Co.

61.       B. urubitinga ridgwayi (Gurney) 1884.  Great Black Hawk.  Aguililla Negra Mayor.  R, u to fc.  H; S, Co.  More common in drier areas of Veracruz.

62.       Leucopternis albicollis ghiesbreghti (Dubus) 1845.  White Hawk.  Aguililla Blanca.  R, now rare and endangered in Tuxtlas and Uxpanapa region due to loss of habitat = RF, formerly often seen over S and HF, now extinct in southern central Veracruz?

63.       Parabuteo unicinctus harrisii (Audubon) 1837.  Harris’ Hawk.  Aguililla de Harris.  NM, it is an uncommon and irregular winter visitant (Contra Howell & Webb 1995:195, who apparently had no records in the State.) Ernesto Ruelas, Jorge Montejo, Sergio Aguilar, Octavio Cruz, and WJS had numerous sightings in winter in central VeracruzJalapa region south to Fortín, and WJS had 28 sightings in the Tuxtla region, always in O.

64.       Buteo nitidus plagiatus (Schlegel) 1862.  Gray Hawk.  Aguililla Gris.  R, fc.  RF, HF, S, O, H.

65.       Buteo magnirostris griseocaudus (Ridgway) 1874.  Roadside Hawk.  Gavilán Chapulinero.  R, c.  WS, includes O and H. ranges rarely to 2000 m.  Most common on coastal lowlands.  This is the most common resident hawk in the State.

66.       Buteo lineatus texanus Bishop 1912.  Red-shouldered Hawk.  Gavilán Pechirrojo.  NM, u. to r. to central Veracruz, but a specimen was taken in Los Tuxtlas in 1900, and WJS had 3 vagrant sightings in the NW area of the Tuxtla region:  near Lerdo de Tejada, above Santiago Tuxtla, and near Tlacotalpan.

67.       Buteo p. platypterus (Vieillot) 1823.  Broadwinged Hawk.  Gavilán Aliancha.  T, abundant transient in migration, especially in the “River of Raptors” in central Veracruz.  A few winter from the Los Tuxtlas S. and E.  Bulk of population winters from through Central to South America.  Sept – Oct, & March – April.

68.       Buteo brachyurus fuliginosus Sclater 1858.  Short-tailed Hawk.  Gavilán Colicorta.  R, fc, RF, HF, S.  Usually seen over weeded areas.

69.       Buteo swainsonii Bonaparte 1838.  Swainson’s Hawk – Aguililla de Swainson.  NM/T, Abundant transient in “River of Raptors” in central Veracruz - no winter records.  Sept. – Oct. and March – April.

70.       Buteo albicaudatus hypospodius Gurney 1876.  White-tailed Hawk.  Aguililla Coliblanca.  R, fc in northern to central Veracruz, mostly on the drier coastal plains.  WJS had a total of 28 sightings of mostly single, immature birds since 1969 in the Tuxtlas.  Winker et al. 1992:  703 reported a single adult seen at a low height near Bastonal late February 1986, the first record for Los Tuxtlas.  WJS believes all these involved birds blown by the strong “suradas”.

71.       Buteo a. albonotatus Kaup 1837.  Zone-tailed Hawk.  Aguililla Aura.  NMV – fc. Sept. to April.  RF, HF, S, O. WS in winter in Veracruz State.

72.       Buteo jamaicensis calurus Cassin 1855.  Red-tailed Hawk.  Aguililla Colirroja.  NM/W, fc -c.  WS, O.

a.       B. j. hadropus Storer 1962.  R, u. POF in western mountains.  Wintering in southern Veracruz.

73.       Harpyhaliactus solitarius (Tschudi) 1844.  Solitary Eagle.  Aguila Solitaria.  Contra Howell and Webb 1995:  195 – 196, there really was a small, disjunct population of this unmistakable species in Los Tuxtlas.  It was first reported for Los Tuxtlas by Winker et al. 1992: 702: an immature.  WJS had a total of 18 sightings of this species over his years of observation in the Tuxtla region:  7 adults and 11 immatures.  One adult was seen also by Dale Delany.  But the forest destruction of the 70’s and 80’s decimated the cloud forest and the last sighting was of a single immature flying near the summit of Volcan San Martín on 24 March 1994, seen also by Dra. Patricia Escalante.  WJS fears that this small population is extinct.

74.       Aquila chrysaetos (Linnaeus)  1758.  Golden Eagle.  Aguila Real.  1 vagrant record on Cofre de Perote, seen by Ernesto Ruelas and companions.

75.        Harpia harpyja (Linnaeus) 1758.  Harpy Eagle.  Aguila Arpia.  Extinct in 1955 in Los Tuxtlas and in 1980’s? in Uxpanapa.  Formerly SR, arriving in March and disappearing in Sept., fide old hunters whom WJS interviewed in the 1970’s in Los Tuxtlas.

76.       Spizastur melanoleucus (Viellot)  1816.  Black-and-white Hawk-eagle.  Formerly R, r.  WJS’ last sighting in Los Tuxtlas on 17 April, 1987.  RF.  Now extinct in Veracruz State?  Its status needs defining in the State.

77.       Spizaëtus tyrannus (Wied)  1820.  Black Hawk-eagle.  Águila Tirana.  R, u. RF, A.  Now rare and endangered, but still present in Los Tuxtlas (2003).

78.       Spizaëtus ornatus vicarious Friedmann 1935.  Ornate Hawk-eagle.  Aguila Elegante.  R.  Now rare and endangered.  WJS’ last sighting was in 1999 on the Rio Chuniapan in Los Tuxtlas, but its unmistakable whistle was heard in 2001.

79.       Haliaetus l. leucocephalus (Linnaeus) 1758.  Bald eagle.  Aguila Cabeciblanca.  NM to Laguna de Tamiahua, V south to Laguna de Alvarado (Saunders, in Loetscher 1955:  25) = 2 records.

80.       Circus cyaneus hudsonius (Linnaeus)  1766.  Northern Harrier.  Gavilán Rastrero.  NM, fc Sept. – 6 May (WJS).  WS in O, mainly on the coastal plain, but occurs in open areas (rarely) to 2500 m. in W. mountains.

81.       “Geranospiza” n. nigra (DuBus)  1847.  Crane Hawk.  Gavilán Zancudo.  R, u-r; O, S, H. mainly coastal, but occurs inland to 1500 m.  The correct generic name is Ischnoceles  DuBus 1847, based on simple priority:  (fide ARP, pers. comm.).


Order Galliformes

Family Cracidae


82.       Ortalis v. vetula (Wagler)  1830.  Plain Chachalaca.  Chachalaca Común.  R, c, WS in O throughout lowlands of the State, reaching to 1800 m., locally, in foothills of W. mountains, and to 1300 m. in Los Tuxtlas.

a.       Ortalis v. mccallii (Baird)  1858.  extreme North Veracruz.

83.       Penelope p. purpurascens Wagler 1830.  Crested Guan.  Pavo Cojolito.  R, now uncommon.  Formerly wide-spread in RF, HF; now confined to “island” patches on steep slopes, due to constant illicit hunting and forest destruction.  To 2500 m. in western mountains.

84.       Crax rubra rubra Linnaeus 1758.  Great Curassow.  Hoco-faisan.  R, now r. formerly WS in HF, RF, now confined to island forest patches on steepest slopes due to constant illicit hunting and forest destruction.  Ocurred to 1500 m. in mountains.  Both of above species are highly endangered and close to extinction in the State.


Family Phasianidae

Subfamily Meleagrinae


85.       Meleagris g. gallapavo Linnaeus 1758.  Wild Turkey.  Guajolote Silvestre.  HF, POF.  Formerly resident in the Sierra Madre Oriental, now extinct in the wild in the State.


Subfamily Odontophorinae


86.       Dendrortyx barbatus Gould 1846.  Bearded Wood-partridge.  Chiviscoyo.  R, only in the western mountains of Veracruz; now rare and endangered.

87.       D. macroura macroura (Jardine and Selby)  1828.  Long-tailed Wood-partridge.  R, POF, oak woodland in the western mountains of Veracruz, still not uncommon?

88.       Colinus virginianus godmani Nelson 1897.  Northern Bobwhite.  Codorniz-cotui Nortena.  R, on the southeastern Veracruz coastal plain, still fc.  O.  Only a small amount of hunting and trapping done locally.  Populations fairly stable to 900 m. in Los Tuxtlas.  Now more common than formerly due to forest destruction and consequent increase of its habitat.

a. Colinus v. pectoralis Gould 1843.  R, on the central Veracruz coastal plain, still fc.  O, populations still quite stable.  Central Veracruz State, from the foothills of the western mountains, throughout the coastal plain.

89.       Odontophorus guttatus (Gould) 1838.  Spotted Wood-quail.  Codorniz Bolanchaco.  R, now rare and endangered due to massive loss of habitat (forest destruction).  RF, including cloud forest.

90.       Dactylortyx t. thoracicus (Gambel)  1848.  Singing quail.  Codorniz Silbadora.  RF, u & HF. & cloud forest in western mountains, with an isolated population in the Tuxtla mountains, which is now probably extinct.

91.       Cyrtonyx montezumae merriami Nelson  1897.  Montezuma Quail.  Codorniz de Moctezuma.  R in the western mountains, fc.  Pine and POF, oak woodland, with open grassy areas.


Order Ardeiformes (incertae sedis) Follows Ligon 1967.

Family Ardeidae


92.       Ixobrychus exilis exilis (Gmelin) 1789.  Least Bittern.  Avetorito Americano.  R/NM, u, ? hard to see; possibly breeds in Tuxtlas = both WJS and RWD (pers. comm. to R. F. Andrle) have heard the breeding “song” in July to mid August in the marshes of Lake Catemaco.  TBL in other areas of the State for possible breeding.

93.       Botaurus pinnatus caribaeus  ?????? ????.  Pinnated Bittern.  Avetoro Neotropical.  SR, fc – Bulk of population withdraws after breeding – March to October, complete withdrawal in Los Tuxtlas, (No winter records) – H, especially marshes.

94.       B. lentiginosus  ???????? ????.  American Bittern.  Avetoro Americano.  NM, fc – u, SL to 2000 m. Oct. – April.  Co, H.

95.       Butorides  v. virescens  (Linnaeus)  1758.  Green Heron.  Garcita Verde.  R. c, SL – 2000 m.  S including mangroves, H, Co; always found near water.

96.       Agamia agami  (Gmelin)  1789.  Agami Heron.  Garza Agami.  SR, u-r, SL – 150 m., withdraws during October, returns early March (at least in Tuxtlas).  H, Co including mangroves.  Now extremely r in Los Tuxtlas.

97.       Ardea (Ardea) h. herodias  Linnaeus 1758.  Great Blue Heron.  Garzón Cenizo.  NM, c-fc, SL – 2500 m.  WS, O, H.  WJS follows the taxonomy of Phillips, Marshal and Monson 1964: 6, regarding the generic over-splitting of the natural genus Ardea, and uses subgenera to distinguish the natural groups within the genus, except for Butoroides and Dichromanassa, both of which have morphological and genetic characters separating them from Ardea.

98.       Ardea (Egretta) caerulea  Linnaeus  1758.  Little Blue Heron.  Garza Morena, or Garza Azul.  R/NM, fc – c SL – 1700 m.  Local breeder along whole coast of the State, usually in swamp forest & mangroves.  Wintering birds arrive late August, coastal flights seen and leave during April.

99.       Ardea (Egretta) alba egretta  Gmelin 1789.  Great Egret.  Garzón Blanco, Garza Grande.  R, fc – c in coastal lowlands, breeding.  NM in mountains & foothills, and more seen in winter – (Nov. – March) in lowlands.

100.   Ardea (Egretta) tricolor ruficollis  (Gosse)  1847.  Tricolored Heron.  Garza Tricolor.  NM, fc.  WS, H, Co. up to 1500 m, on coastal plain up to foothills of western mountains; local breeding resident in Laguna Tamiahua, and on Tuxtla coast (WJS); TBL for breeding in Laguna Tampamochoco (Tuxpan) and Laguna de Alvarado & Papaloapan Delta.

101.   Ardea (Egretta) thula thula  (Molina) 1782.  Snowy Egret.  Garza Nivea.  R/NM, c SL to 2500 m. H, Co.  More seen in winter when NM present (late Aug. – April).

102.   Bulbulcus ibis  Linnaeus 1758.  Cattle Egret.  Garza Ganadera.  SL to 2000 m.  R, O. WS.  Now superabundant due to huge amount of cow pastures in the State.  In the southeast, roosts & nests in trees in the towns, creating municipal problems of sanitation.

103.   Dichromanassa rufescens  (Gmelin)  1789.  Reddish egret.  Garza Rojiza.  NM, fc – u, SL to at least 400 m. Aug. – April.  R. r, breeding locally along coast:  Laguna Tamiahua, Laguna de Sontecomapan and Lake Catemaco, in Los Tuxtlas (WJS).  H, but mostly coastal, V inland.  TBL as breeding in other coastal regions.

104.   Tigrisoma m. mexicanum  (Swainson)  1834.  Bare-throated Tiger-Heron.  Garza-tigre Gorjinuda.  SR, fc SL – 1000 m.  In Los Tuxtlas, the bulk of the population withdraws during Sept. – Oct., with a few remaining from Nov. – Feb.  They are seen again in numbers from late Feb. – early March.  More studies are needed to verify continuous residency in other areas of the State.

105.   Nycticorax nycticorax hoactli  (Gmelin)  1789.  Black-crowned Night-heron.  Garza-nocturna Coroninegra.  R/NM, c, SL TO 2000 m.  H, WS, Co.  Migrating flights seen along coast in fall and spring.  This species was among the first Mexican birds described by European naturalists.

106.   N. v. violaceus  (Linnaeus)  1758.  Yellow-crowned Night-heron.  Garza-nocturna Coroni-clara.  R/NM, fc – c SL – 1000 m, but mainly coastal.  H, Co.

107.   Cochlearius cochlearius phillipsii  Dickerman 1973.  Boat-billed Heron.  Garza Cucharon.  R, fc SL to 900 m.  H, esp. mangroves.  Not seen by day, but seen in trees just before dark.  East coast birds are this subspecies, not C. c. Icledonii Auctorum.


Order Gruiformes

Family Gruidaenec Aramidae Auctorum.

(Following Olson 1985).


108.   Aramus guarauna dolosus  Peters 1925.  Limpkin.  Carao.  R/NM, fc SL – 1500 m.  H, mostly S (mangroves).  Many more seen in winter in Southern Veracruz.  Migratory flights seen along the southern coast in fall and spring.



Family Rallidae


109.   Rallus e. elegans  Audubon 1834.  King Rail.  R u H S, also in mangroves & swamp forest.    A resident, disjunct population occurs in coastal marshes from Tecolutla at least to Los Tuxtlas.  Specimens have been identified as the Eastern U.S. sub-species.  See Howell & Webb 1995:  239 and range map.

110.   Rallus l. limicola  Veillot 1819.  Virginia Rail.  Rascón de Virginia.  NM – u, but WJS has winter records in Los Tuxltas (not shown by Howell & Webb 1995: 240: map).  Specimens needed to verify the subspecies.

a.       R. l. friedmanni  Dickerman 1966.  Apparently R.  Calling birds heard June, July, and August.  Specimens needed.

111.   Rallus maculates insolitus (Bangs and Penard)  1908.  Spotted Rail.  Rascón Pinto.  R, u SL – 1200 m.  H.  Tecolutla to S.E., fc in the Papaloapan Delta (WJS).

112.   Aramides cajanea mexicana  Bangs 1907.  Gray-necked Woodrail.  Poposcala.  R, fc SL – 500 m., mainly coastal.  H., wet S (including mangroves and swamp forest).

113.   Porzana carolina  (Linnaeus) 1758.  Sora (Rail).  Polluela Sora.  NM/W, fc SL – 2000 m. mid-Aug. – May.  WS on passage.  H, Co.

114.   Porzana flaviventris woodi  Van Rossem 1934.  Yellow-breasted Crake.  Polluela Pechiamarilla.  R, rare, SL – 1000 m.  H,  Co.  Found from Tecolutla to the S.E., mainly on the coast.

115.   Amaurolimnas concolor guatemalensis  (Lawrence) 1863.  Uniform Crake.  Polluela Café.  SR? SL – 1200 m.?  In the Tuxtla region, the bulk of the population withdraws during September.  H, wet S (thickets with sawgrass).  C. C. Lamb (in the 1950’s?) collected 8 specimens at a spot 30 kms. WSW of Tezonapa (not recorded by Howell & Webb 1995:  242 map).

116.   Laterallus ruber  (Salvin and Godman) 1860.  Ruddy Crake.  Polluela Rojiza.  R SL – 1200 m.  Common in marshes throughout the State, more common in coastal H.

117.   Laterallus j. jamaicensis  (Gmelin) 1789.  Black Rail.  Polluela Negra.  R, u.  Apparently a disjunct population:  at Tecolutla and Los Tuxtlas, SL – 340 m.?  Specimens are needed from this coastal area to determine the subspecies involved.

118.   Gallinula chloropus cachinnans  Bangs 1915.  Common Moor-hen.  Gallineta Común.  NM, fc – c, SL – 2000 m., winters in Los Tuxtlas; no summer records.  Breeding needs confirmation in the State, except in western Veracruz mountains, where known to breed.

119.   Porphyrula martinica  (Linnaeus) 1766.  Purple Gallinule.  Gallineta Morada.  R fc –c, breeds in Los Tuxtlas, and other marshy areas of the State, SL – 600 m., locally[p16]  to 1000 m.  H, WS on coastal lowlands to foothills.

120.   Fulica americana americana  (Gmelin)  1789.  American Coot.  Gallareta Americana.  NM fc – c., SL to 2500 m. mid-Sept. to 16 May (WJS).  No summer records, contra Howell and Webb 1995 (map, p. 244), within the State (needs confirmation?) except in western mountains?[p17]   H, esp. slow rivers, lakes, and coastal lagoons breeding.


Family Heliornithidae


121.   Heliornis fulica  (Boddaert) 1783.  Sungrebe.  Pájaro Cantil, Viudita.  R, u, SL to 340 m. in Los Tuxtlas; R, fc on all rivers of the State, at least formerly.  Still present in Los Tuxtlas and Uxpanapa regions, and in central Veracruz, fide Pronatura ornithologists.


Family Podicicepidae – follows a suggestion by Olson, 1985.


122.    Tachybaptus dominicus brachypterus  (Chapman) 1899.  Least Grebe.  Zambullidor Menor.  R/NM, fc to common; more seen in winter.  H, Co, SL – to 1500 m. in foothills; to ca. 600 m. in Tuxtlas.  Quite common still in marshy and aquatic habitats.  Both fall and spring migration has been noted by Andrle (1967:  180), and by WJS:  many more birds seen in winter than in summer.

123.   Podiceps nigricollis californicus  Heerman 1854.  Eared Grebe.  Zambullidor Orejudo.  NM – fc – c, SL to 2000 m. early Nov. – late April.  H, Co, WS in winter in aquatic habitats.

124.   Podylimbus p. podiceps  (Linnaeus) 1758.  Pied-billed Grebe.  Zambullidor Piquipinto.  R/NM, fc summer, c winter, SL – 2500 m.  Very common wintering, often in flocks.  H, Co.


Order Charadriiformes

Family Burhinidae


125.   Burhinus b. bistriatus  (Wagler) 1829.  Double-striped Thick-knee.  Alcaraván.  SR, uncommon, SL to ca. 150 m.?  March to early November, South central Veracruz to S.E. only on coastal plain.  Apparently withdraws completely from the State after breeding.


Family Haematopodidae


126.   Haematopus p. palliatus  Temmink 1820.  American Oystercatcher.  Ostrero Americano.  R, u. in Laguna Tamiahua in N. Veracruz; NM, u – fc in rest of State:  breeding TBL in rest of coast; possibly breeding on Tuxtla coast.  Strictly Co.



Family Plataleidae = Threskiornithidae auct. (contra AOU)

(WJS follows almost all European ornithologists in maintaining Bonaparte’s Plataleidae instead of AOU’s Threskiornithidae.)


127.   Eudocimus albus  (Linnaeus) 1758.  White Ibis.  Ibis Blanco, Coco.  R/NM, fc SL – 340 m. on Lake Catemaco (WJS).  Late July - April, u. resident at Laguna Tamiahua on the extreme northern Veracruz coast, and migrant in the rest of the State.  H, Co.

128.   Plegadis falcinellus  (Linnaeus) 1758.  Glossy Ibis.  Ibis Lustroso.  V 1 record in Los Tuxtlas (WJS):  1 adult in worn breeding plumage in marshy pasture near the Rio Chunicopán, 23 Aug., 2002.

129.   Plegadis chihi  (Vieillot) 1817.  White-faced Ibis.  Ibis Cariblanco, Coco.  NM, fc – u, SL – 2000 m., Sept. – April.  H, Co.  WS on passage.

130.   Platalea ajaja  Linnaeus 1758.  Roseate Spoonbill.  Espátula Rosada.  NM, u –fc, SL – 500 m.  R, u and irregular on Laguna Tamiahua, no breeding records in rest of State:  NM fc – c at Cúmas on passage, 6 Aug. – 28 May (WJS).  Rare winterer in the State.


Family Jacanidae


131.   Jacana spinosa  (Linnaeus) 1758.  Northern Jacana.  Jacana  Mesoamericana.  R, fairly common resident in H throughout the State.  SL to 1200 m, but mostly on the coastal plain.



Family Charadriidae



132.   Pluvialis squatarola  Linnaeus 1758.  Black-bellied Plover.  Chorlo Gris.  T – fc to c.  August – May, strictly Co.  Migratory flights along coast Aug. – Sept. and April – early May.  Rare winterer on Tuxtla coast (WJS).

133.   Pluvialis dominica  (Müller) 1766.  American Golden Plover.  Chorlo-dorado Americano.  T, fc to c – fall migration, WS on passage, Co, early Sept., Oct., to 1 Nov. and 27 April to 28 May (WJS, all off the Tuxtla coast except for 3 sightings offshore).

134.   Charadrius alexandrinus nivosus  (Cassin) 1858.  Snowy Plover.  Chorlito Niveo.  NM, fc, rarely R breeding at Laguna Tamiahua and twice on Tuxtla coast (WJS).  Strictly among coastal beaches, rarely inland.

135.   C. melodus  Ord 1824.  Piping Plover.  Chorlito Chiflador.  NM, now r. due to breeding habitat loss in the North.  Strictly coastal beaches and immediately adjacent lowlands.

136.   C. semipalmatus  Bonaparte 1825.  Semipalmated Plover.  Chorlito Semipalmado.  NM/ T, fc – c SL to 500 m.  Co, Aug. – May.  Transient periods – Aug. – early Nov. and April – May.

137.   C. wilsonia beldingi  (Ridgway) 1919.  Wilson’s Plover.  Chorlito Piquigrueso.  NM., V. 1 spec. record from Tacolutla.

a.       C. wilsonia wilsonia  Ord 1814.  NM – fc – c. T, u. to fc. in winter SL to 500 m.  Co, rarely inland (WJS has 2 records from Lake Catemaco).

138.   C. collaris  Vieillot 1818.  Collared Plover.  Chorlito Collarejo.  R, u. to fc SL to 1000 m.  WJS has seen it near Fortin on the Rió Blanco in April.  H, Co, but in Los Tuxtlas the species is SR, disappering in Sept. to Oct., reappearing in late Feb. & March – very few winter records (WJS).

139.   C. v. vociferus  Linnaeus 1758.  Killdeer.  Chorlito Tildío.  NM/T.  fc – c, SL to 2500 m on passage, Sept. – April – WS, O, often in dry pastures.



Family Scolopacidae


140.   Capella gallinago delicata (Ord) 1825.  Common Snipe.  Agachona.  NM/T, fc to u SL to 2500 m.  H, O.  Oct. – April.  Note:  contra AOU 1983 “Gallinago” gallinago.  See Phillips 1991, and many other authors who used the name correctly.  Gallinago was not used by Brisson in a generic sense.

141.   Numenius a. americanus  Bechstein 1812.  Long-billed Curlew.  Zarapito Piquilargo.  NM/T, u to fc SL to 2500 m.  WS on passage.  Aug. – early May. H, Co, O.  Transient period:  Aug. – Sept., March – early May.  But mainly coastal in Veracruz.

142.   N. borealis  (Forster) 1772.  Eskimo Curlew.  Arapito Boreal.  NM – extinct since 1963 (See Sibley 2000: 14).  1 dubious specimen examined by WJS  1956, labelled “Veracruz” in the old “Chopo” (Museo de Historia Natural) in Mexico City, but must have occurred on passage through our State, at least on the coast.

143.   Numenius phaeopus hudsonicus  Latham 1790.  Whimbrel.  Zarapito Trinador.  NM/T, u – fc, Aug. – May, transient periods Aug. – early Oct., March – early May.  Co, H, O.

144.   Limosa haemastica  (Linnaeus) 1766.  Hudsonian Godwit.  Picopando Ornamental.  T.  No winter records.  Transient period = mid-April – May and (WJS in Tuxtlas) 12 Aug. – 4 Oct.  See Howell & Webb 1995: 270, map, for our guess at the possible trans-Isthmus route followed by part of the population (WJS sights in Oaxaca in 1960’s).  The species winters on the coasts of southern South America.

145.   Limosa fedoa  (Linnaeus) 1758.  Marbled Godwit.  Picopando Canelo.  NM/T, u in winter, strictly coastal; late July – 29 May; transient periods:  Sept. to 4 Nov. and April & May.

146.   Bartramia longicauda  (Bechstein) 1812.  Upland Sandpiper.  Zarapito Del Interior.  T, fc, SL to 2500 m,  WS on migration – late July – mid-Oct., Late March – mid-May.  Co, O.

147.   Actitis macularia  (Linnaeus) 1766.  Spotted Sandpiper.  Playero Alzacolita.  NM, c SL to 2500 m., but solitary in winter.  Late July to end May.  H, Co.

148.   Tringa s. solitaria  Wilson 1813.  Solitary Sandpiper.  Playero Solitario.  NM.  fc SL to 1500 m. late July – May.  H, Co, WS on migration.  Almost always seen alone in winter.

a.       T. s. cinnamomea  (Brewster) 1890.  NM – same as above.

149.   Tringa flavipes  (Gmelin) 1789.  Lesser Yellowlegs.  Patamarilla Menor.  NM, fc. to c SL to 1500 m., but mainly coastal, late July – 24 May.  Co, H, WS on passage.

150.   Tringa melanoleuca  (Gmelin) 1789.  Greater Yellowlegs.  Patamarilla Manor.  NM, fc. SL to 2500 m., but mainly coastal, mid-July – 29 May.  Co, H, WS on passage.

151.   Catoptrophorus s. semipalmatus  (Gmelin) 1789.  Willet.  Playero Pihuihui.  NM, fc. – c late July – 29 May (WJS). Co, H.  A few oversummer in the State.

152.   Limnodromus griseus hendersoni  Rowan 1922.  Short-billed Dowitcher.  Costurero Piquicorto.  NM, fc. to c. – 26 July – 21 May. (in Tuxtlas – WJS).  Strictly Co, H (rarely).

153.   Limnodromus scolopaceus  (Say) 1823.  Long-billed Dowitcher.  Costurero Piquilargo.  NM, fc. – c SL to 2500 m.  WS on passage.  Co, H, almost always seen inland.

154.   Arenaria interpres morinella  (Linnaeus) 1766.  Ruddy Turnstone.  Vuelvepiedras Rojizo.  NM, T, fc.  In the Tuxtla region it is only T, 9 August to 27 Nov. (WJS).  Wintering records are needed for the State (Dec. – late Feb. ).  Co including beaches.

155.   Calidris (Calidris) canutus rufus  (Wilson) 1813.  Red Knot.  Playero Gordo.  NM/T, only transient in Tuxtlas = 9 Aug. to 27 November.  No winter records.  Spring period = 28 Feb. (Loetscher, 1955:26.) – 2 March – 2 June.  There are wintering records in the rest of the State.  Strictly coastal.

156.   Calidris (Crocethia) alba  (Pallas) 1764.  Sanderling.  Playero Blanco.  NM, fc. to c. Aug. – May.  Strictly coastal.

157.   Calidris (Erolia) minutilla  (Vieillot) 1819.  Least Sandpiper.  Playerito Minimo.  NM, fc – c.  Co, H.  Aug. – May.  T through Los Tuxtlas – only 3 winter records – SNGH and WJS.  Needs confirmation as wintering in the rest of the State.

158.   Calidris (Erolia) fuscicollis  (Vieillot) 1819.  White-rumped Sandpiper.  Playerito Rabadilla-blanca.  T., fc. – u.  Transient periods – 26 Aug. – 19 Oct. (in Tuxtlas, WJS) and 20 April – 28 May (WJS).  No winter records.  Co, but also seen 4 times inland on the shore of Lake Catemaco (SNGH & WJS).

159.   Calidris (Erolia) alpina pacifica  (Coves) 1861.  Dunlin.  Playerito Dorsirrojo.  NM, r. Co, H.  First recorded by Dickerman (1972:  70) from a specimen taken at Tlacotalpan.  WJS had 28 sightings in Los Tuxtlas.  Howell & Webb: 278 say only “Tamps. & N. Veracruz.”  WJS believes the southeasternVeracruz and perhaps Tabasco coasts are the furthest south that the sp. winters in the western Gulf of Mexico.

160.   Calidris (Erolia) melanotos  (Vieillot) 1819.  Pectoral Sandpiper.  Playero Pectoral.  T, fc. – c. 1 Aug. – Oct., mid-March – early June.  H, Co.

161.   Calidris (Erolia) bairdii  (Coves) 1861.  Baird’s Sandpiper.  Playerito de Baird.  T, fc – c, mid-July – Nov., mid-March – early June.  H, less often Co.

162.   Calidris (Ereunetes) mauri  (Cabanis) 1856.  Western Sandpiper.  Playerito Occidental.  NM, fc – c, late July – May.  Co, WS in transit.

163.   Calidris (Ereunetes) pusilla  (Linnaeus) 1758.  Semipalmated Sandpiper.  Playerito Sempalmado.  T, fc – c.  No winter records.  Mid-July – Oct., late March – early June.  Co, H = esp. lake shores.  This sp. and Western are difficult to distinguish (See Howell & Webb 1995:275 for identification clues).

164.   Calidris (Micropalama) himantopus  (Bonaparte) 1826.  Stilt Sandpiper.  Playero Patilargo.  NM, fc to c, transient, u winterer – 10 Sept – 27 May (WJS).  H, less often Co.

165.   Tryngites subruficollis  (Vieillot) 1819.  Buff-breasted Sandpiper.  Playero Pradero.  T, u to fc SL to 1000 m.  Aug. – Oct., April – mid May.  Co, O (seen often in grassy pastures).

166.   Phalaropus tricolor  (Vieillot) 1819.  Wilson’s Phalarope.  Falaropo de Wilson.  T, fc – c, SL to 2500 m.  Mid-July – Oct., late March – early June.  WS, incl. Co.


Family Recurvirostridae – follows Olson 1985.


167.   Recurvirostra americana  Gmelin 1789.  American Avocet.  Avoceta Americana.  NM, fc – u, SL to 1000 m. 7 Aug. to June (WJS), mainly coastal.

168.   Himantopus mexicanus  (Müller) 1776.  Black-necked Stilt.  Candelero Americano.  R/NM,  fc – c, more seen in winter.  Co (lagoons, estuaries) H.


Family Phoenicopteridae – follows Olson 1985.


169.   Phoenicopterus ruber  Linnaeus 1758.  American Flamingo.  Flamenco Americano.  1 vagrant record:  Dalquest, 1947 (22 March) in the Tuxtla region (ca. 50 birds!).  See Lowery and Dalquest 1951: 549.  Windblown vagrants after a strong “norte?”


Family Stercorariidae – follows Olson 1985


170.   Stercorarius parasiticus  (Linnaeus) 1758.  Parasitic Jaeger.  Salteador Parásito.  P, u winter visitor in Gulf of Mexico – WJS had 18 sightings off Tuxtla coast, between 26 Oct. and 30 March.

171.   S. pomarinus  (Temminck) 1815.  Pomarine Jaegar.  Salteador Pomarino.  P, u winter visitor in Gulf of Mexico.  WJS had 23 sightings off the Tuxtla coast, between 10 Dec. and 2 April.  Both species published in Historia Natural de Los Tuxtlas, UNAM 1997, in “Lista de Aves” by WJS and PEP.


Family Laridae

Subfamily Larinae


172.   Larus philadelphia  (Ord) 1815.  Bonaparte’s Gull.  Gaviota de Bonaparte.  NM, u – fc.  Not shown for the State of Veracruz by Howell & Webb, 1995: 291 – except marked as vagrant, but seen by WJS every fall & spring on the Tuxtla coast, with a few wintering records.  Migratory flights every fall: Sept., and every Spring: April.  Efforts should be made to discover extent and destination of migration.  The species has been seen here in the Tuxtlas also by KW, PEP, and J. Vega, with WJS.  Co, H – Lake Catemaco.

173.   Larus atricilla megalopterus  Bruch 1855.  Laughing Gull.  Gaviota Reidora.  R/NM, fc to c. wintering, u. in summer, breeding on Isla Terrón in Los Tuxtlas, and on islets near Veracruz (WJS and ARP).  Co, occasional on Lake Catemaco during “nortes”.

174.   L. pipixcan  Wagler 1831.  Franklin’s Gull.  Gaviota de Franklin.  T, fc – c.  Sept. – Nov., April – early June.  A very few wintering records in Los Tuxtlas, on the coast.  Co, O, H.

175.   L. ridibundus  Linnaeus 1766.  Black-headed Gull.  Gaviota Encapuchada.  V  1 banded specimen record off Veracruz Port Feb., 1912 – which most probably followed a ship from Europe.

176.   L. minutus  Linnaeus 1766.  Little Gull.  Gaviota Minima.  V.  1 first year immagure seen by WJS & SNG Howell at Lake Catemaco for 1 month (Feb., 1981).  Published by Howell, 1987.

177.   L. dominicanus  …………………  Kelp Gull.  Gaviota Dorsinegra Sureña.  V  1 sighting (WJS) at La Barra de Sontecomapan (an adult)  on 3 Feb. 2001.  TBL elsewhere on Veracruz coast.

178.   L. delawarensis  Ord 1815.  Ring-billed Gull.  Gaviota Piquianillado.  NM, fc – c, late Aug. – 20 May.  Co, H – including Lake Catemaco.

179.   L. argentatus smithsonianus  Coues 1862.  Herring Gull.  Gaviota Plateada.  NM, fc. – c, to northern Veracruz, u in SE.  Aug. – May.  In Los Tuxtlas we have only seen 1st winter and second winter in matures, no adults.

180.   L. fuscus  Linnaeus 1766.  Lesser Black-backed Gull.  Gaviota Dorsinegra Menor.  V  1 record Tuxtla coast (Playa de La Barra), 30 Jan. 1999 (WJS).  TBL elsewhere on Veracruz coast.

181.   L. marinus  Linnaeus 1758.  Great Black-backed Gull.  Gaviota Dorsinegra Mayor.  V  1 record, at La Barra de Sontecomapan, Los Tuxtlas  6 Jan. 2000 (WJS).  TBL elsewhere on Veracruz coast .

182.   L. hyperboreus  Linnaeus 1758.  Glaucous Gull.  Gaviota Blanca.  V  1 record  at La Barra de Sontecomapan 9 & 10 January 1992.  A single 2nd winter bird on the beach.  (WJS, published in Historia Natural de Los Tuxtlas[p18] ).


Subfamily Sterninae


183.   Sterna nilotica aranea  Wilson 1814.  Gull-billed Tern.  Golandrina-marina Piquigruesa.  R. to central Veracruz.  u-fc. NM to southeast.  u – fc.  Co.  Migrants winter in SE Veracruz.  Aug. – May.

184.   Sterna caspia  Pallas 1770.  Caspian Tern.  Golandrina-marina Grande.  NM, fc – c, Aug. – May – Co, often seen inland on Lake Catemaco during “nortes”.

185.   Sterna m. maxima  Boddaert 1783.  Royal Tern.  Golandrina-marina Real.  NM, fc – c, Aug. – May.  R, u (breeds on Isla Terrón on Tuxtla coast) – March – April, and often again in Sept. – Oct.  (WJS), but seen inland on Lake Catemaco during “nortes”.

186.   Sterna sandvicensis acuflavida  Cabot 1847.  R/M, fc – c Aug. – May, but permanent local population breeds on Isla Terrón off the Tuxtla coast March to May.

187.   Sterna h. hirundo  Linnaeus 1758.  Common Tern.  Golandrina-marina Comun.  T. fc – c, Aug. - Nov., April – May.  Rare winterer on Tuxtla coast.

188.   Sterna forsteri  Nuttall 1834.  Forster’s Tern.  Golandrina-marina de Forster.  NM, fc to c.  Aug. – May.  Co, H.

a.       Sterna a antillarum  (Lesson) 1847.  Least Tern.  Golandrina-marina Mínima.  NM, r, mainly transient on Veracruz coast.  Local breeding at Veracruz Harbor (ARP, pers. comm.) and on Isla Terrón on the  Tuxtla coast; irregular (not every year).

189.   Sterna a. anaethetus  Scopoli 1769.  Bridled Tern.  Golandrina-marina Embridada.  P, only records (37 sightings, WJS) off Tuxtla coast.  More pelagic observations needed.

190.   Sterna f. fuscata  Linnaeus 1766.  Sooty Tern.  Golandrina-marina Oscura.  P, fc visitor to Tuxtla coast 26 Sept. to 20 April (WJS = 150 sightings).  First recorded for the Tuxtla coast by Winker, et. al. 1992: 705 of an observation of an immature (RJO) off Playa Jicacal and 2 dead adults on the beach at Jicacal (8 Dec., 27 Feb., and 1 March).  Howell & Webb, 1995: 373 (map) did not record these records, although published by reputable ornithologists, not birdwatchers.

191.    Anous stolidus  (Linnaeus) 1758.  Brown Noddy.  Golandrina-boba Café.  P. V. r.  WJS had only 13 observations during his time (1984-1991) fishing offshore on the Tuxtla coast, all between 30 June and 9 Sept.  All were seen after tropical storms or hurricanes.  More pelagic observations are needed off the Veracruz coast.

192.   Chlidonias niger surinamensis  (Gmelin) 1789.  Black Tern.  Golandrina-marina Negra.  T, fc – c. ? mid-July – Oct., and April – early June.  Co, O, WS on migration.  Many seen crossing the Isthmus of Tehuantepec to the coast of Oaxaca (WJS observations).


Subfamily Rhynchopinae


193.   Rhynchops nigra  Linnaeus 1758.  Black Skimmer.  Rayador Americano.  Mainly NM, but breeding records in Papaloapan marshes (fledglings seen by WJS, early Aug., 1998).  fc – c.  Aug – May.  Co., H.  Note- Nobody has the “right” to change genders or spellings of correctly named species, contra AOU 1983.


Order Anseriformes

Family Anatidae


194.    Anser albifrons frontalis  (Scopoli) 1769.  White-Front Goose.  Ganso Careto Mayor.  NM, fc – c, winter visitor to N. Veracruz (Laguna Tamiahua), u. to southeast (Papaloapan marshes, recorded Saunders, in Loetscher 1955:  ?; Los Tuxtlas, WJS – r)[p19] .  Co, H.  Recorded by Winker, et. al. 1992: 702.

195.   Anser coerulscens  Linnaeus 1758.  Snow Goose.  Ganso Blanco.  NM, u from North Veracruz to Central Veracruz, v[p20]  in Tuxtlas – Co, H (WJS).  Loetscher 1955: p. 23.  (Saunders recorded the species from the Papaloapan Delta).

196.   Branta canadensis leucoparia  (Brandt) 1836.  Canada Goose.  Ganso Canadiense.  NM, u to North Veracruaz, V to Papaloapan marshes (Loetscher, 1955: 19) and to Tuxtlas (3 records, WJS).  Co, H, O.

a.       B. c. parvipes Cassin[B21]  1857 = the type of the subspecies remains the only record.  Specimens are needed to verify other occurrences in the State.  Type is from Veracruz, Veracruz.

197.   Dendrocygna autumnalis fulgens  Friedmann 1947.  Black-bellied Whistling Duck.  Pijiji (in Veracruz Pichichi) Albiblanco.  R, fc – c, more seen in winter.  Co, H.

198.   D. bicolor helva  Wetmore and Peters 1923.  Fulvous Whistling Duck.  Pijiji Canelo.  R?, WJS had no summer (breeding) records (June to Sept.) in the Tuxtla region.  Breeding records from State of Veracruz are urgently needed to clarify status of this species in State.  We consider the species, in Los Tuxtlas, as NM.  Winker et al. 1992:  702 reported only 1 flock of this species on 3 Oct., 1974.  WJS has sight records of the species in Los Tuxtlas from 21 Sept. to 10 March.  (total = ca. 50 sightings over 33 years).

199.   Cairina moschata  (Linnaeus) 1758.  Muscovy Duck.  Pato Real.  R, u.  H (wooded), mainly coastal plain, up to 1200 m., lower in Tuxtlas.

200.   Aix sponsa  (Linnaeus) 1758.  Wood Duck.  Pato Arcoiris.  NM u to North Veracruz; V, r in central & southeast to Los Tuxtlas.  One record, published by David Pashley 1987,  MBA Bulletin Board, 1 (872) 2 – 3.  H (wooded).

201.   Anas p. platyrhynchos  (Linnaeus) 1758.  Mallard.  Pato de Collar.  NM, V. r. Recorded from Laguna Tamiahua (ARP, pers. comm, 1 ♂) and WJS (8 Dec. 1976: ♂♂ amid a raft of A. fulvigula).  Also WJS had 2 observatiouns on Lake Catemaco, one on 3 April, 1977: 1 ♂, 2 typical ♀♀.  The other was a typical wild male with a white collar; the duck was thin, not plump.  It was killed by an illicit hunter on Lake Catemaco on 22 March, 1978.  WJS examined it in the hand.  At that time, there were no domestic Mallards being raised in Los Tuxtlas;  all domestic ducks were Muscovies.

202.   Anas fulvigula maculosa  ……………….  Mottled Duck.  Pato Tejano.  NM, u-r. winterer, at least as far south as Los Tuxtlas (Lake Catemaco).  No recent records due to pollution of the lake.  SL to 500 m.  H, Co., but still winter in the Papaloapan Delta.

203.   A. cyanoptera  Vieillot 1816.  Cinnamon Teal.  Careta Castaña.  NM, fc SL to 2500 m.  Late Sept. – 28 April (WJS). U. in Los Tuxtlas; no recent records (since 1991) on Lake Catemaco due to contamination.  Co, H.

204.   A. discors  Linnaeus 1766.  Blue-winged Teal.  Careta Aliazul.  NM, fc – c SL to 2500 m..  Sept. – May.  Co, H.

205.   A. crecca carolinensis  Gmelin 1789.  Green-winged Teal.  Careta Aliverde.  NM, fc – u SL to 2500 m. Oct. – 6 May.  First recorded by Saunders in Loetscher 1955: 23 from the Papaloapan Delta.  Co., H.

206.   A. acuta  Linnaeus 1758.  Northern Pintail.  Pato Golandrino Norteño.  NM, f – c winterer to Central Veracruz, less common in southeast SL to 2500 m.  Co, H, WS on migration (in transit).  Winters south to northern South America.

207.   A. americana  Gmelin 1789.  American Wigeon.  Pato Chalcuán.  NM, fc – c SL to 2500 m.  Oct. – May.  U. in Los Tuxtlas.  Co, H, WS in transit.  Winters to northern South America.

208.   A. strepera  Linnaeus 1758.  Gadwall.  Pato Pinto.  NM, fc – c in transit.  fc to u in winter in the State SL to 2500 m.  Co, H.

209.   A. clypeata  Linnaeus 1758.  Northern Shoveler.  Pato Cucharón.  NM, fc – c; T, fc – u, winter visitor.  Co, H, winters to NE South America.

210.   Aythya valisneria  (Wilson) 1814.  Canvasback.  Pato Cuacoxtle.  NM, fc to central Veracruz, u. in S.E. (Los Tuxtlas) SL to 2500 m.  Co, H.

211.   A. americana  Redhead.  Pato Cabecirrojo.  NM, fc South to Central Veracruz, u in southeast (Los Tuxtlas).  Winters almost entirely in Mexico.  Nov. – April SL – 2500 m.  Co, H.

212.   A. collaris  (Donovan) 1809.  Ring-necked Duck.  Pato Piquianillado, Canate.  NM, fc – c  in North Veracruz (Laguna Tamiahua) fc in Central Veracruz, but u in S.E. Veracruz, SL to 2500 m.  Oct. – May.  Winters to Panama.  Co, H.

213.   A. affinis  (Eyton) 1838.  Lesser Scaup.  Pato-Boludo Menor.  NM, fc – c, SL to 2500 m.  Oct. – end May (on Lake Catemaco – WJS).  Co, H.

214.   Bucephala albeola  (Linnaeus) 1758.  Bufflehead.  Pato Monje.  NM, r in extreme northern Veracruz, see Howell & Webb, 1995: 170.  TBL further south in coastal Veracruz.

215.   Mergus cucullatus  Linnaeus 1758.  Hooded Merganser.  Mergo de Caperuza.  V. only 3 records in the State – Jalapa (Sclater 1859a)369, Orizaba (Sumicrast 1881: 234), and WJS & SH saw one at close range (20 – 40 m) in Los Tuxtlas (Pashley, D., see above for reference, 1987):  23 December, 1984.  See star on map in Howell & Webb 1995: 371.

216.   M. serrator  Linnaeus 1758.  Red-breasted Merganser.  Mergo Copetón.  NM, u south to Laguna Tamiahua (Howell & Webb) but rare (and irregular?)  V. in South Veracruz – 1 record, 8 Jan., 1981 (P.P), 1 record, WJS, SH, WB, D. & D.  Pashley, 1984, and 1 record, WJS and 2 expert birders from Malta (who instantly recogized the bird) on 28 Nov. 1999.  2 of these records were seen at Montepío on the coast of the Tuxtla Region, the middle record was ca. 6 kms inland at a freshwater pond.  Co, H.

217.   Oxyura dominica  (Linnaeus) Linnaeus 1766.  Masked Duck.  Pato Enmascarado.  SR, u.  Breeds locally in coastal Veracruz, including Tuxtla and Uxpanapa regions.  No winter records in Los Tuxtlas (March – Sept. WJS).  Observations in winter are needed to confirm withdrawal from other regions of Veracruz.  H.

218.   O. jamaicensis rubida  (Wilson) 1814.  Ruddy Duck.  Pato Tepalcate, but WJS prefers Patito Rojizo (local name in Veracruz).  NM, fc in northern & central Veracruz, u in Southeast.  TBL in extreme Western Veracruz as a local breeder.  Co, H.  Winters S.E. to El SalvadorV[p22]  or r.


Order Columbidae


219.   Columba livia  Gmelin 1789.  Feral Pigeon, Rock Dove.  Paloma Domestica.  Introduced from Europe in 17th or 18th centuries.  Now common in all cities, towns and large “rancherías” in the whole State, but still not feral in country areas.

220.   C. f. fasciata  Say 1823.  Band-tailed Pigeon.  R, fc in western mountains of the State.  1 vagrant record in Los Tuxtlas, most probably blown N across the isthmus by violent “surada”.  See map in Howell & Webb 1995: 323.

221.   C. cayennensis pallidicrissa  Chubb 1910.  Pale-vented Pigeon.  Paloma Vientre-blanco.  SR, fc in Tuxtla Region; very few winter records SL to 500 m. in Veracruz, RF edge, S.

222.   C. f. flavirostris  Wagler 1831.  Red-billed Pigeon.  Paloma Morada.  R, a, SL to 1800 m.  RF & HF edge, S, feed in O. often roost in trees in towns.

223.   C. nigrirostris  Sclater 1859.  Short-billed Pigeon.  Paloma Piquinegra.  SL to 1300 m.  R,c. RF only, Los Tuxtlas and Uxpanapa regions.

224.   C. speciosa  Gmelin 1789.  Scaled Pigeon.  Paloma Escamada.  SR, HF, RF, now r due to forest destruction; SL to 1000 m.  Los Tuxtlas and in Uxpanapa regions.  Still present in Tezonapa – Motzorongo region?

225.   Ectopistes canadensis  (Linnaeus) 1766.  Passenger Pigeon  Paloma Viejera.  Extinct since 1900, formerly wintered in the State.

226.   Zenaida macroura carolinensis  (Linnaeus) 1766.  Mourning Dove.  Paloma Huilota.  R, fc – c in western mountains; NM, fc – c elsewhere in State, SL to 2500 m.  WS in migration, fc winterer to central Veracruz, u. from Tuxtlas SE.  Massive transient flights seen on coast & coastal plain.  Fall passage – 8 Aug. – 28 Nov.; spring passage:  6 April – 26 May.  Winters south and east to Panama.  A few winter in the State.

227.   Zenaida a. asiatica  (Linnaeus) 1758.  White-winged Dove.  Paloma Aliblanca.  R in northern & NW Veracruz, NM, a on passage only?  SL to 2500 m.  WJS had no winter records in the Tuxtla region, but enormous transient flights on the coast:  28 Oct. – 10 Nov. & 3 April – 6 May (Wetmore, 1943) and 12 May (WJS).  Coastal observations in fall and spring are needed to elucidate the alleged wintering status in the rest of the State.

228.   Columbina inca  (Lesson) 1847.  Inca Dove.  Tórtola Colilarga.  R, c – a, SL to 3000 m.  WS in O.  Found in the whole State.  Breeds in 5 episodes – Feb. – October in Los Tuxtlas (WJS).

229.   C. passerina pallescens  (Baird) 1860.  Common Ground-Dove.  Tórtola Comun.  SR, u, SL to 2500 m.  This species withdraws from the higher areas of the Tuxtla regions in October, to appear again in mid-March.  See Winker et al. 1992:  705 for a similar observation on winter withdrawal.  More studies are needed in the State for possible withdrawal or altitudinal migration.  We are still sadly lacking precise knowledge of migratory movements in many species of doves.  O.

230.   C. minuta interrupta  (Griscom) 1929.  Plain-breasted Ground-Dove.  Tórtola Pechilisa.  SR, fc, SL to 800 m., mostly in the lowlands.  The bulk of this species also withdraws from the Tuxtla region, but we have a few winter records.  See Winker et al. 1992: 705.  Central Veracruz to the Uxpanapa region.

231.   C. talpacoti rufipennis  (Bonaparte) 1855.  Ruddy Ground-Dove.  Tórtola Rojiza, SR, fc in summer, r in winter (at least in Los Tuxtlas), SL to 1000 m.  The same remarks given for C. passerina pallescens and C. minuta interrupta[p23]  apply to this ground-dove.  O.

232.   Claravis pretiosa  Ferrari-Pérez 1886.  Blue Ground-Dove.  Tórtola Azul.  SR, fc, SL to 1000 m.  This bluish dove also withdraws completely from the Tuxtla region from Sept. – late Feb.  WJS had no winter records.  This species is found mainly in RF edge, HF edge, S, but is often seen in O when feeding.

233.   C. mondetoura ochoterena  Van Rossem 1934.  Maroon-chested Ground-Dove.  Tórtola Pechi-morada.  R, u, 1200 – 2000 m. western mountains, Los Tuxtlas 600 to 1200 m.  CF & montane RF, HF.  WJS has winter records in Los Tuxtlas, as well as summer records.

234.   Leptotila verreauxi fulviventris  Lawrence 1882.  White-tipped Dove.  Paloma Arroyera.  R c, SL to 2000 m.  WS, RF edge, HF edge, oak woodland, & S.

a.       L. v. angelica  Bangs and Penard 1922.  R  N. Veracruz  HF edge, S, oak woodland.

235.   Leptotila plumbeiceps plumbeiceps  Sclater and Salvin 1868.  Gray-headed Dove.  Paloma Cabecigris.  R, fc, SL to 1000 m.  RF, HF, S.

236.   Geotrygon albifacies albifacies  Sclater 1858.  White-faced Quail-Dove.  Paloma-Perdiz Cariblanca.  R, now u, due to loss of habitat, 1000 to 2500 m.  CF, only in western mountains.

237.   Geotrygon carrikeri  (Wetmore) 1942.  Purplish-backed Quail Dove.  Paloma-Perdiz Morena.  R, now uncommon due to habitat loss, 500 to 1300 m.  Endemic to the Tuxtla mountains.  RF, CF.  This is a good species, differentiated from G. lawrencei of Central America both genetically (DNA-ADNA studies) and by egg color (pale pink in carrikerii, but pale bluish in lawrencei).  The birds in Costa Rica (See Howell & Webb 1995: 331), if different from the Tuxtla birds, might require a new ssp. Name.  True lawrenceii of Panama has an entirely different call.

238.   Geotrygon montana montana  Linaeus 1758.  Ruddy Quail-Dove.  Paloma-Perdiz.  R, fc to u due to forest destruction, SL to 1500 m.  HF, RF, S.


Order Psiitaciformes

Family Psittacidae


239.   Ara macao    Linnaeus 1758.  Scarlet Macaw.  Guacamaya Roja.  Extinct in Veracruz since late 1980’s (in the Tuxtla & Uxpanapa regions).  Extinct for many years in northern and central Veracruz.

240.   A. militaris cf. mexicanus  Ridgway 1915.  Military Macaw.  Guacamaya Verde.  Formerly resident in the western mountains of Veracruz – (cf. Sclater, 1857; Sumichrast, 1881; and Salvin & Godman, 1889) – extinct in Veracruz since 1890’s!

241.   Rhychopsitta pachyrhynchus  (Swainson) 1827.  Thick-billed Parrot.  Cotorra-Serrana.  Formerly R in the western mountains.  Extinct since 1890’s!

242.   Aratinga h. holochlora  Sclater 1859.  Green Parakeet.  Perico Verde Mexicano.  R, fc in northern & central Veracruz, u. in Los Tuxtlas (WJS) and Uxpanapa regions (Pronatura).  SL to 1500 m. in Central Veracruz, lowlands in Tuxtlas & Uxpanapa regions.  See Howell and Webb 1995: 334, range map.  HF, S, H, O.

243.   A. nana astec Souance 1857.  Aztec Parakeet (Olive-throated, AOU 1983).  R, fc in entire State, except for high western mountains, SL to 1000 m.  RF, S, O, H.

244.   Bolborhynchus lineola (Cassin) 1853.  R  Barred Parakeet.  Periquito Barrado.  R, u-r in Tuxtla mountains; no recent records in western mountains (?), 750 to 2000 m.  Now scarce due to forest destruction.  (POF) Pine & evergreen oak forest & CF, montane RF in Los Tuxtlas.  Endangered.

245.   Pionopsitta h. haematotis  (Sclater and Salvin) 1860.  Brown-hooded Parrot.  Loro Orejirrojo.  R. formerly u. in Tuxtla RF; no records (WJS) since 1998.  SL to 1000 m.  Perhaps still exists in Uxpanapa RF (if any left).  If still exists in extreme southeast, it must be considered endangered.

246.   Pionus s. senilis  (Spix) 1824.  White-crowned Parrot.  Loro Coroniblanco.  R, fc, SL to 1500 m.  Most common on coastal plains.  S, H, O.

247.   Amazona albifrons nana  Miller 1905.  White-fronted Parrot.  Loro Frentiblanco.  R, u, SL to 340 m. only from Tuxtlas SE into Uxpanapa region.  RF, S, O.

248.   A. viridigenalis  (Cassin) 1853.  Red-crowned Parrot.  Loro Coronirrojo.  R, fc northern & north-central Veracruz.  Now less common with loss of habitat and continuous cage-bird trapping of young.  POF, S, H, HF edge.

249.   A. farinosa guatemalae  (Sclater) 1860.  Mealy Parrot (Blue-crowned Parrot).  Loro Verde.  Now R, u – r, only in Los Tuxtlas and Uxpanapa regions.  SL to 750 m.  Engangered due to habitat loss.

250.   A. o. oratrix  Ridgway 1887.  Yellow-headed Parrot.  Loro Cabeciamarillo.  R.  Now extinct (or close to extinction) in whole State, due to continuing cage-bird traffic and loss of habitat.  We would appreciate communication of any recent confirmed sightings to:  Pronatura – e-mail: …

251.   A. a. autumnalis  Linnaeus 1758.  Yellow-cheeked (Red-lored, AOU) Parrot.  Loro Cachete-Amarillo.  R, still fc.  RF, HF, S, H, O.


Order Strigiformes

Family Tytonidae


252.   Tyto alba pratincola  (Bonaparte) 1838.  Barn Owl.  Lechuza de Campanario.  R, fc – c; SL to 3000 m. O, including towns, but nest also in trees and palms.


Family Strigidae


253.   Otus flammeolus (Kaup) 1853.  Flammulated Owl.  Tecolote Flameado.  NM?  u.  Probably winters in western mountains, certainly on eastern flank of Pico de Orizaba within the State limits.  WJS has also seen it in winter at Puerto del Aire, within the State.

254.   Otus kennicottii suttoni Moore 1941.  Western Screech-Owl.  Tecolote Occidental.  New Record?  Prob. R.  WJS heard & saw 2 birds in the NW extension of Veracruz into the Sierra Madre Oriental, W. of Zacualpilla (on trail to La Ponderosa) on 25 March, 1977, in oak woodland.  Both gave the Western “bouncing ball” call.

255.   Otus asio mccalli (Cassin) 1854.  Eastern Screech-Owl.  On 21 April, 1979, WJS was driving east from El Ebano, S.L.P. , into Veracruz when he saw an inviting place to pull off the highway (Mex 110) and camp for the night, at a point 7 kms east of the S.L.P. border, in a patch of semi-open oak forest.  Just after dark, a low trill came from a tree some 10 m. away.  With the spotlight he located an owl which he recognized as an Eastern Screech-Owl because he had heard and seen the same owls in South Tamaulipas during his field work in the 1950’s.  This owl may occur even further to the south in North Veracruz.  TBL.

256.   O. g. guatemalae (Sharpe) 1875.  Vermiculated Screech-Owl.  Tecolote Vermiculado.  R, fc in southeastern Veracruz, SL to 1500 m.  RF, S, now less common with habitat destruction.

a.       O. g. cassinii (Ridgway) 1878.  R, fc in central and northern Veracruz.  HF, S, oak woodland.

257.   O. t. trichopsis (Wagler) 1832.  Whiskered Screech-Owl.  Tecolote Bigotudo.  R, u? 2000 to 3000 m.  Western mountains: Cofre de Perote, Las Vigas.  POF.

258.   Lophastrix cristata stricklandi Sclater and Salvin 1859.  Crested Owl.  Buho Corniblanco.  SR, u – r, SL to 1800 m.  March – Nov.  No winter records in Tuxtlas nor in Oaxaca (WJS).  RF, HF.

259.   Bubo virginanus mayensis Nelson 1901.  Great Horned Owl.  Buho Cornudo (Gran Duque).  R. fc. in western mountains. 1500 to 3000 m.  And since 1970’s in Los Tuxtlas = probable invader from south with the destruction of the RF, 150 to 400 m.  WS, but most often seen in O, HF edge, and S.

260.   Pulsatrix perspicillata saturata Ridgway 1904.  Spectacled Owl.  Buho de Anteojos.  R, once fc, now r due to habitat destruction.  Formerly RF, HF, S, now mainly in S in Los Tuxtlas.

261.   Glaucidium gnoma gnoma Wagler 1832.  Mountain Pygmy-Owl.  Tecolotito Serrano.  R, fc in western mountains of the State, 1500 to 3000 m.  POF, and humid pine-evergreen oak forest.

262.   G. griseiceps Sharpe 1875.  Central American Pygmy-Owl.  Tecolotito Centroamericano.  R, u, only in southeast (Los Tuxtlas and Uxpanapa regions), SL to 1200 m.  RF and edge.

263.   G. brasilianum ridgwayi Sharpe 1875.  Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl.  Tecolotito Comun.  R, fc – c, SL to 1, SL to 1400 m.  RF edge, HF edge, S, O, H.  Not in high mountains.

264.   Speotyto cunicularia hypogaea (Bonaparte) 1825.  Burrowing Owl.  Buho Llanero.  NM, u – fc, SL to 2000 m. Sept. – end March.  O, S edge, Co (especially sand dunes).

265.   Ciccaba virgata centralis Griscom 1929.  Mottled Wood-Owl.  Buho Cafe.  R, fc – c, SL to 2500 m.  RF and edge, HF and edge, S, POF in western mountains

266.   C. nigrolineata Sclater 1859.  Black-and-White Owl.  Buho Blanquinegro.  R.  Now u – rare due to habitat destruction, SL to 1200 m.  RF, HF, “cafetales[p24] ”, S.

267.   Strix varia sartorii (Ridgway) 1873.  Barred Owl.  Buho Barrado.  R. u. in western mountains.  Humid & arid POF, and fir forest.  Not often reported due to the elevations where it lives:  2500 – 3000 ms.

268.   Asio otus wilsonianus (Lesson) 1830.  Long-eared Owl.  Buho-Cornudo Caricafe.  NM, r.  Recorded from the southeastern slope of Pico de Orizaba.  POF.

269.   A. stygius robustus Kelso 1934.  Stygian Owl.  Buho-Cornudo Oscuro.  R, r in western mountains, in CF (Mirador of Sartorius).  WJS had 2 sound records on Volcan Santa Marta, also in CF.

270.   A. clamator forbesii (Lowery and Dalquest)  1951.  Striped Owl.  Buho-Coronudo Cariblanco.  R, fc, SL to 900 m.  O, but often perches in trees at forest edge.

271.   A. f. flammeus (Pontoppidan) 1763.  Short-eared Owl.  Buho Orejicorto.  NM, r –u, an irregular visitor south to central Veracruz; V to southeastern Veracruz on the coastal plain to at least La Camaronera, near Alvarado (WJS sighting), SL to 2500 m.  O.

272.   Aegolius a. acadicus (Gmelin) 1789.  Northern Saw-whet Owl.  Tecolote-abetero Norteño.  R, u in western mountains, 2000 to 3000 m.  Semi-humid to humid POF, & fir forest.


Order Caprimulgiformes

Family Caprimulgidae


273.   Chordeiles acutipennis texensis Lawrence 1856.  Lesser Night-Hawk.  Chotacabras Menor.  NM – fc – c, SL to 2500 m.  Aug. – early May.  O, Co.

a.       Chordeiles a. littoralis Brodkorb 1940.  SR, breeds locally (Tuxtlas, central Veracruz coastal plain), SL to 500 m.  April – Aug. O, Co.

274.   C. minor minor (Forster) 1771. 

a.       Common Night-Hawk.  Chotacabras Mayor.  T, fc, Aug. – Nov., and March to May.  Aerial[p25]  overflights.  3 migratory North American ssp. have been identified in Veracruz = a. b. c.

b.      C. m. chapmani Coues 1888.  T

c.       C. m. howellii  Oberholser 1914.  T

d.      C. m. neotropicalis  Selander and Alvarez 1955.  SR, u – arrives March, early April, and leaves after breeding in August.

275.   Nyctidromus albicollis merrilli  Sonnet 1888.  Pauraque.  Tapacaminos Picuyo.  NM, fc. O.  More field studies are needed to determine the arrival/departure dates and altitudinal limits of this migrant subspecies.

a.       N. a. yucatanensis  Nelson 1901.  R, fc. breeds March – August.  This ssp. is seen all year, in O.  More birds are seen and heard between Sept. and March when northern migrants are present.

276.   Phalaenoptila nuttallii centralis  Moore 1947.  Common Poorwill.  Pachacua Norteña.  NM – 1 record:  a ♂ specimen taken by Dalquest just W. of Limón on the plateau on 26 Sept., 1948.  The record must be considered V (See map in Howell & Webb 1995: p. 375.)

277.   Caprimulgus carolinensis  Gmelin 1789.  Chuck-Will’s-Widow.  Tapacaminos Carolinense.  NM, fc – c, SL to 1500 m.  Late Aug. – early Nov., and end Feb. – early May.  RF, HF, S, and O, feeding.

278.   C. salvini  Hartert 1892.  Tawny-collared Night-Jar.  Tapacaminos Ticuér.  R, fc to c, SL to 500 m.  Howell and Webb 1995: 377, map does not show the occurrence of this species in Los Tuxtlas, from whence it was reported by Winker et al. 1992: 707, who recorded calling birds and a specimen (a road kill).  WJS had at least 50 episodes of listening to calling birds, all from late Jan. – Aug., and examined in the hand 2 road kills.  O.

279.   C. r. ridgwayi  Nelson 1897.  Buff-collared Nightjar.  Tapacaminos Presta-Me-Tu-Cuchillo.  R, fc, 500 to 700 m.  A disjunct population in a small area in semi-arid thorn forest in central Veracruz.  See Howell & Webb 1995: 378, map.  O, S.

280.   C.  vociferus  Wilson 1812.  Northern Whip-Poor-Will.  Tapacaminos Cuerprihuíu.  NM, fc SL to 1800 m., Sep. – Apr.  WS on migration, winters POF, CF, S, RF in Los Tuxtlas.

281.   C. maculicaudus (Lawrence) 1862.  Spot-tailed Nightjar.  Tapacaminos Colimanchado.  SR, fc:  April – Aug.  WJS had no winter records despite birders’ reports on Christmas counts, in Los Tuxtlas.

282.   C. arizinoae Brewster 1881.  Mexican Whip-Poor-Will.  Tapacaminos Cuerporruin.  .  R, fc.  In the western mountains 1400 to 3000 m.  Comes down-slope in winter.  Pine forest, POF, and oak woodlands.  WJS thinks it better to regard this form as a full species, as its calls are quite separate from C. vociferus, although it is obviously related to the eastern bird.  DNA studies may help to resolve this question.  Its general montane distribution is also note-worthy.


Family Nyctibiidae


283.   Nyctibius griseus mexicanus Nelson 1900.  Common Potoo.  Biemparado Comun.  R, fc, RF, edge; HF, edge; O.


Order Apodiformes

Family Apodidae


284.   Cypseloides niger costaricensis Ridgway 1910.  Black Swift.  Vencejo Negro.  R, fc in western mountains.  Occurs in migratory flocks over the Tuxtla mountains and Lake Catemaco.  6 Sept. – 12 Oct., and 29 March – 14 April (WJS).

285.   C. rutilus griseifrons  Nelson 1900.  Chestnut-collared Swift.  Vencejo Cuellicastano.  R, fc in western mountains, breeding April – July; also may breed in Los Tuxtlas.  WJS has seen fall flights over Lake Catemaco = 28 Aug. – 8 Oct., and 27 Feb. – 5 April.  He had no winter nor summer sightings.  WS on migration, O.

286.   Streptoprocne zonaris mexicana  Ridgway 1910.  White-collared Swift.  Vencejo Cuelliblanco.  R, fc.  WS, O.  Breeds throughout State wherever caves behind large waterfalls occur – April – July.  Winter flights erratic and irregular, often seen in flocks of many hundreds.

287.   Chaetura v. vauxi  (Townsend) 1839.  Vaux’s Swift.  Vencejo de Vaux.  NM/T, fc – c on passage – winters in southern half of the State.  Aerial, mostly seen in highlands.  This ssp. Is known from specimens.  T mid-Sept. – October and April – mid-May, but wintering in small flocks:  Sept. – May.

a.       C. v. tamaulipensis  Sutton 1941.  This race presumably breeds in the Sierra Madre in extreme western Veracruz.  Nesting records are needed.

b.      C. v. richmondi  Ridgway 1910.  This race has bred in hollow trees on Volcan Santa Marta and on Vol. San Martín in April & May (WJS observations in 1970’s).  The form is recognizable in the field:  it is much darker overall than the other races and arrives (in Los Tuxtlas, at least) after most of the migratory forms have left the area.  More field work is needed (as always!) on the species in the State.  Aerial, mostly highlands.

288.   C. pelagica  (Linnaeus) 1758.l  Chimney Swift.  Vencejo de Chimenea.  T, fc – c., mid-March to 15 May (WJS), but extremely rare in fall (WJS =  2 records in violent Nortes both in October, on Tuxtla coast).  The bulk of the population crosses the Gulf to the Yucatan Peninsula & thence south overland, in fall.  But many eastern birds migrate through Cuba, Hispaniola, and (rarely) the Bahamas.

289.   Aeronautes saxatalis nigrior  Dickey and Van Rossem 1928.  White-throated Swift.  Vencejo Gortiblanco.  T?  Seen only over or near mountains?  It was not shown by Howell and Webb 1995:  388 as occurring in Veracruz. Andrle (1966:180) apparently was the first to publish its presence in Veracruz ( 2 records – 29 Oct. & 14 Nov., 1962).  WJS had 32 sightings, all Fall & Spring = 26 Sept. – 21 Nov. and 15 March – 17 April; all these records from the Tuxtla region.  More field studies are needed to elucidate the distribution of this species in the State.

a.       A. s. saxatilis  Woodhouse 1853.  R In western mountains.

290.   Panyptila cayennensis  Gmelin 1789.  Lesser Swallow-tailed Swift.  R, u. in Los Tuxtlas (WJS) – WJS & SH had 2 sightings (on 23 Dec. 1981 and 10 Jan. 1982) and WJS later had 36 more sightings, including observation of 2 nests.  One was a group of long mud tubes plastered on the trunk of a huge evergreen-oak in CF on Volcan Santa Marta on 28 April 1987, with one bird seen to enter the tube.  The other was a similar tube attached to a sea cliff near Playa Escondida, about 40 m. above the beach; several birds were seen near and entering the tube:  21 May 1991.)  The species was only known for years from a single specimen taken by Lamb near Presidio.  Much more observations are needed to work-out the true range in Veracruz.  WJS had records in every month of the year.


Order Trochiliformes (ordo novus) incertae sedis

Family Trochilidae

            WJS believes it is high time to separate the hummingbirds from the swifts, upon the firm basis of morphology.  The short, twisted humerus, the short, strong radius and ulna, and the very long, fused carpometarcapus are unique to this family.  And they differ widely from the same bones in the Apodidae.  The only real resemblance between Trochilids and Apodids is in the similar small feet, upon which item they were lumped together by Fürbringer and Gado over 100 years ago, and there they have remained, fossilized in print, until now!  Actually, the swifts are more closely related to the Caprimulgids, which also have very small feet and similar, wide, insect-trapping mouths.  WJS takes full responsibility for thus separating these two very different Taxa.  He ffels it necessary to do so, as, in his opinion (an that of other ornithologists), no linear sequence of Taxa can truly show evolutionary relationships.  So he has raised an order, but he follows Olson 1985, in considering it of uncertain place in the linear sequence.  Incidentally, the hummingbirds are the only birds which can fly backwards!  (Due to their unique wing-bone structure.)


291.   Phaethornis superciliosus veraecrucis  Ridgway 1910.  Long-tailed Hermit.  Ermitaño Colilargo.  R, still fc.  RF, CF, S (mangroves and swamp forest).  Only in Los Tuxtlas and Uxpanapa now?  SL to 1500 m.

292.   Phaethornis longuemareus adolphi  Gould 1857.  Little Hermit.  Ermitaño Chico.  R, now scarce.  RF & edge, CF only in Los Tuxtlas & Uxpanapa regions?  SL to 1500 m.

293.   Campylopterus c. curvipennis  (Deppe) 1830.  Wedge-tailed Sabrewing.  Fandanguero Colicuña.   R, fc – c.  Western foot-hills of mountains in Veracruz, not in or near Los Tuxtlas.  Does not occur on Isthmus of Tehuantepec, where WJS worked during 5 years without seeing the species (contra Howell & Webb 1995: 195, range map).  500 to 1500 m.

294.   C. excellens  (Wetmore) 1941.  Long-tailed Sabrewing.  Fandanguero Colilargo.  R, fc.  Endemic to S.E. Veracruz, Los Tuxtlas and Uxpanapa (Pronatura) regions.  Two extralimital records:  1 specimen collected near Rizo de Oro in W. Chiapas;  AMNH (WJS) and 1 sighting in Isthmian Oaxaca by Binford (1989:  142) at “28 road miles N. Matias Romero, Oaxaca.”  WJS’ field parties never saw the species in Isthmian Oaxaca.  SL to 1300 m.

295.   Campylopterus h. hemileucurus  (Deppe) 1830.  Violet Sabrewing. Fandanguero Colilargo.  R, fc, SL to 1300 m on Tuxtla mountains; in summer above 500 m, going downslope in winter (October – end Feb.), where commonly seen in RF edge, HF ege, H, S & O.  Southeastern Veracruz only, now mostly in Los Tuxtlas and Uxpanapa regions.

296.   Florisuga m. mellivora  (Linnaeus) 1758.  White-necked Jacobin.  Jacobino Nuquiblanco.  SR, u.  Population in Los Tuxtlas withdraws in winter – one winter record:  6 Jan. at the UNAM Biological Station (Winker, et al., 1992: 707).  Earliest arrival date is 28 Feb (ibid.), but WJS had 2 March.  The latest date seen in Fall was mid-October on the Coxcoapan River, Los Tuxtlas (WJS with Gerónimo Tours, 2002).  SL to 500 m.

297.   Colibri t. thalassinus  (Swainson) 1827.  Green Violet-Ear.  Colibri Orejivioleta.  SR, fc in western mountains and now on Sierra de Los Tuxtlas – POF, montane RF, CF.  Now endangered due to loss of habitat.  April – early Nov. in Los Tuxtlas.  Please explain how to tell ♂ from ♀ by sight (See Howell & Webb 1995: 399, under “Habits”).  Both sexes are similar.

298.   Colibri prevostii prevostii  (Lesson) 1832.  Green-breasted Mango.  Mango Pechiverde.  SR, fc mid-Feb. – mid-September.  No winter records in Los Tuxtlas (WJS).  Not in most of extreme north of the State.  SL to 1300 m. in Los Tuxtlas.  O, H, RF edge, HF edge, S edge.  We follow A. R. Phillips 1966:  104 and pers. comm. in not recognizing the AOU sponsored “Anthracothorax” and “Lampornis.”

299.   Colibri amethystinus henricus (Lesson and DeLattre) 1839.  Amethyst-throated Hummingbird.  Colibri Gorjiamatista.  SR, fc. in western mountains, r in the Sierra de Los Tuxtlas, where it arrives[p26]  21 March 1992 (Patricia Escalante with students & WJS on Volcán San Martín) to 26 August, 1962 (spec. by R. F. Andrle, at 1300 m, recorded in Andrle 1967:  183), again at 1300 m.  CF, upper montane RF, POF

300.   Colibri c. clemenciae (Lesson) 1830.  Blue-throated Hummingbird.  Colibri Gorjiazul.  SR, fc in western mountains of the State – March to early October, the bulk (or all?) of the population withdraws to the SE in winter.  Does not occur in Los Tuxtlas.  1800 to 2500 m.

301.   Abeillia abeillei abeillei (Lesson and DeLattre) 1839.  Emerald-chinned Hummingbird.  Barbi e[p27] smeralda.  Formerly R. in western mountains of the State.  No recent records?  Humid POF and HF with pines.  TBL.  1000 to 2500 m.

302.   Lophornis helenae  (DeLaetre) 1843.  Black-crested Coquette.  Coqueta Crestinegra.  R, fc.  SL to 1500 m., 1300 in Los Tuxtlas.  The species is a chronic vagabond, following flowering seasons.  It is still fc in Los Tuxtlas.  RF edge, HF edge near Presidio, O with flowers, H with flowers, S.

303.   Chlorostilbon c. canivetii  (Lesson) 1837.  Canivet’s Emerald.  Esmeralda de Canivet.  R, fc. – c. SL – 1500 m. (1300 m. in Los Tuxtlas).  RF edge, HF edge, S, but seen mainly in O when feeding.

304.   Cynanthus l. latirostris  Swainson 1827.  Broad-billed Hummingbird.  Colibri Piquiancho.  R, fc in western mountains, mainly above 900 m.  Know from above Xalapa and S. slope of Pico de Orizaba.  Arid to semi-humid S and O.

305.   Hylocharis eliciae (Bourcler et Mulsant) 1846.  Blue-throated Goldentail.  Zafiro Gorjiazul.  SR, u April to Sept.  SL to 1000 m. only in Los Tuxtlas and Uxpanapa regions.  RF, S, O with flowers.

306.   Hylocharis l. leucotis  (Vieillot) 1818.  White-eared Hummingbird.  Colibri Orejiblanco.  R, fc –c.  Western mountains (Cofre de Perote, Las Vigas, E. slope of Pico de Orizabo – 1200 – 3000 m.)  POF, pine-evergreen forest, and S (oaks).

307.   Amazilia c. candida  (Bourcier & Mulsant) 1846.  White-Bellied Emerald.  Esmeralda Vientre-Blanca.  R? c (is SR in Los Tuxtlas; bulk of population withdraws during Aug. – Sept.  Very few winter records).  RF edge, HF edge, S, O.  SL to 1500 m.

308.   A. b. beryllina  (Deppe) 1830.  Berylline Hummingbird.  Colibri de Berilo.  R, fc - c.  In western mountains – Perote to E. slope of Pico de Orizaba – 600 to 2000 m.  S, espeically oaks, O, POF edge.

309.   A. tzacatl tzacatl  (De La Llave) 1833.  Rufous-tailed Hummingbird.  Colibri Colirrufo.  R, fc – c.  SL – 1200 m.  RF and edge, O.

310.   A. violiceps cf. ellioti  (Berlepsch) 1889.  Violet-crowned Hummingbird.  Colibri Coronivioleta.  V.  1 specimen record from near Jalapa many years ago.

311.   A. yucatanensis cerviniventris  (Gould) 1856.  Buff-bellied Hummingbird.  Colibri Vientre-Canelo.  R, fc – c.  SL to 1200 m. throughout the State except in high western mountains  Humid to arid HF, RF edge, S, O.  Lamb specimens in Aug. near Coyame, many WJS & SH observations & Kevin Winker.

312.   A. cyanocephala ????  Azure-crowned Hummingbird.  Colibri Coroniazul.  R, fc – c.  S.L to 2500 m. in western mountains.  Altitudinal migrant in winter, but also in summer (June – Aug.) around Lake Catemaco (340 m) in Los Tuxtlas.  Similar migrating should be noted for other areas of the State.  POF, CF, HF, RF, S, and O.

313.   Eupherusa eximia nelsoni  Ridgway 1910.  Stripe-tailed Hummingbird.  Colibri Colirrayado.  R? u, from Motzorongo area S.E. to Uxpanapa region (Pronatura) and SR, r, in Los Tuxtlas in RF, CF (WJS 28 sightings:  late March – August).  Not shown by Howell & Webb 1995: 415, map.  600 to 1800 m.

314.   Heliomaster longirostris pallidiceps  Gould 1861.  Long-billed Starthroat.  Picolargo Coroniazul.  R fc from Los Tuxtlas S.E., formerly? west to Potrero Viejo (1 spec. 26 Dec. 1946: Lowery & Dalquest 1951:589.  Not shown by Howell & Webb 1995: 419).  SL to 1600 m.

315.   Eugenes fulgens Swainson 1827.  Magnificent Hummingbird.  Colibri Magnifico.  R, fc. in the western mountains – 1500 – 3000 m.  Altitudinal migrant, descending to 900 – 1000 m. in winter.  POF, pine-evergreen forest, O.

316.   Lamprolaima r. rhami (Lesson) 1833.  Garnet-throated Hummingbird.  Colibri Alicastaño.  R u – fc, may withdraw from highest areas in winter.  1200 – 3000 m. in the western mountains.  HF and humid pine-evergreen forest, O, POF, S (oaks).

317.   Tilmatura d. dupontii (Lesson) 1832.  Sparkling-tailed Woodstar.  Colibri Colipinto.  R. u-fc.  Mountains from Cofre de Perote south to eastern slope of Pico de Orizaba.  750 – 2500 m.  Altitudinal migrant, often descending to coastal plain in winter.  HF, edge, S, O, POF.

318.   Calothorax eliza (Lesson and DeLattre) 1839.  Mexican Sheartail.  Tijereta Yucateca.  R, u.  A disjunct population occurs in central Veracruz from the valley of the Rio Pescadores near Puente Nacional, locally in coastal dune scrub S.E. to Playa del Toroprieto on the Tuxtla coast (WJS).  O, and Co.  WJS does not recognize the genus “Doricha” of AOU.  SL to ca. 500 m.

319.   Calothorax lucifer (Swainson) 1827.  Lucifer Hummingbird.  Tijereta Norteña.  NM, V, only one sure record – 1 ♂ at Potrero Viejo (near Córdoba), 16 Dec. 1948 (Lowery & Dalquest 1951: 590).

320.   Archilochus colubris  (Linnaeus) 1758.  Ruby-Throated Hummingbird.  Colibri Gorjirubi.  T, fc – c.  Aug. – Oct. and mid-Feb.:  the range map on p. 424 (Howell & Webb?) is not correct.  We have no winter records in the Tuxtlas or in the Uxpanapa region.  Nor did WJS have winter records in Isthmian Oaxaca except on the Pacific slope (see Schaldach, Escalante, & Winker 1997: 110).  Apparently the species winters only on the Pacific coast, from South Sinaloa southeast to Chiapas.  SL to 2500 m. on passage.

321.   A. alexandri (Bourcier et Mulsant) 1846.  Black-Chinned Hummingbird.  Colibri Barbinegro.  V. 1 spec. record from Las Vigas, Veracruz, in the Sutton collection in the University of Oklahoma museum.

322.   Selasphorus p. platycercus (Lesson and Delattre) 1839.  Broad-tailed Hummingbird.  Zumbador Coliancho.  R & NM, fc –c, only in western mountains and foothills, pine forest & POF, O.

323.   S. heloisa (Lesson and DeLattre) 1839.  Bumblebee Hummingbird.  Zumbador Mexicano.  R, !?  Endemic to Mexico.  May occur in western mountains.  Known from El Puerto del Aire, near Acultzingo.  Pine-evergreen forest & perhaps HF, O.

324.   S. rufus (Gmelin) 1788.  Rufous Hummingbird.  Zumbador Rufo.  V. 2 records – 1 spec. taken by Sartorius at Hacienda Mirador in 19th century and 1 live bird (♂) examined in the hand on the beach at La Barra de Sontecomapan by S.N.G. Howell on 6 Sept. 1984.  This record is shown on the range map in Howell & Webb 1995: 428.


Order Coraciiformes

Family Galbulidae


325.   Galbula melanogenia ruficauda Sclater 1853.  Rufous-tailed Jacamar.  Jacamar Colirrufo.  R. probably now extinct in Los Tuxtlas and near extinction or highly endangered in the Uxpanapa region, all due to habitat destruction.  WJS’ last sighting in Los Tuxtlas was in 1977.  The Minn. group neither saw nor collected it during their work from 1973 to 1987 (pers. comm.:  Kevin Winker).


Family Trogonidae


326.   Trogon melanocephalus melanocephalus Gould 1835.  Black-headed Trogon.  Trogon Cabecinegro.  SL – 1300 m. R, now only fc. in Los Tuxtlas.  Status in central Veracruz needs defining.  RF and edge, HF and edge, S, O.

327.   T. violaceus sallaei Bonaparte 1856.  Nec. T. v. braccatus  Cabanis & Heine 1863 = AOU.  Violaceous Trogon.  Trogon Violaceo.  R, now u to fc.  RF, HF, S esp. mangroves & swamp forest.  SL to 1300 m. in Los Tuxlas, to 1800 m. elsewhere in the State.

328.   T. m. mexicanus Swainson 1827.  Mountain Trogon.  Trogon Mexicano (or Serrano).  R, fc in western mountains:  1200 – 3500 m.  POF and pine-evergreen forest, oak woodland.

329.   T. collaris xalapensis Dubus 1845, nec T. collaris puella Gould 1845=AOU.  (See Phillips 1966:  105)  Collared Trogon.  Trogon Collarejo.  R, now less common in the State due to loss of habitat.  SL to 600 m. on coastal plain, but only in forest:  HF, RF, S.  T. c. puella is the correct name for the Pacific coast ssp. From Chiapas to Nicaragua.

330.   T. elegans ambiguus Gould 1835.  Elegant Trogon.  Trogon Elegante.  R, fc to u only in western mountains = near SL (in extreme North Veracruz to 2400 m. near Perote & Las Vigas.  S, in arid to semi-arid areas, also thorn forest in north

331.   T. m. massena  Gould 1838.  Slaty-tailed Trogon.  Trogon Colioscuro.  R only in Tuxtla and Uxpanapa regions.  Now rare & endangered due to habitat loss.  RF.


Family Momotidae


332.   Hylomanes m. momotula  Lichenstein 1839.  Tody Motmot.  Momoto Enano.  R. now rare & endangered in Los Tuxtlas and Uxpanapa regions, due to habitat loss and consequent fragmentation of the remaining RF.  WJS has very few recent records of this species.

333.   Momotus momota lessonii  Lesson 1842.  Blue-crowned Motmot.  Momoto Coroniazul.  R fc to c, southern Veracruz (Presidio southeast to Uxpanapa region).  HF and edge, RF and edge, S.  SL to 1300 – 1600 m.

a.       M. m. coeruliceps  (Gould) 1836.  R. fc – c in northern Veracruz  South to Jalapa region, where mostly intergrades with M. m. lessonii.  HF and edge, S.

334.   Eumomota s. superciliosa  (Sandbach) 1837.  Turquoise-browed Motmot.  Momoto Cejiturquesa.  1 ancient record.  Formerly resident at Uvero = present-day Lerdo de Tejada on S.E. Veracruz Coast (See Sumichrast 1881).

335.   Electron carinatum  (DuBus) 1847.  Keel-billed Motmot.  Momoto Piquiaplanado.  Formerly R, r in SE; now extinct?  1 specimen record from the Rio Solosuchil 30 kms SSE of Jesús Carranza, 12 May 1948, L & D 1951:  594 – 595.


Family Bucconidae


336.   Bucco macrorhynchus hyperrhynchus  Sclater 1855.  White-necked Puffbird.  Buco Collarejo.  R, r? in extreme southeastern Veracruz (Uxpanapa region) - WJS & his field party saw a presumed pair sitting on a dead tree beside the road from the Trans-Isthmus Highway to Suchilapa Veracruz (about 3 kms. SW of Suchilapa), on 22 March, 1962.  C. Lamb collected a specimen “25 mi. S. Presidio” = west-southwest in Municipio de Tezonapa and more nearly 25 kms.!  Poor Chester was always confusing kms. & miles on his labels and he had a poor sense of directions!


Family Halcyonidae = nec Alcedinidae AOU et auct.

Follows Olson 1985, and European authors.


337.   Ceryle alcyon (Linnaeus) 1758.  Belted Kingfisher.  Martín-Pescador Norteno.  NM, fc – c. late Aug. – 13 May (WJS).  H, especially rivers & lake shores, but also along shores & mangroves of coastal lagoons.  SL to 3000 m.

338.   Ceryle torquata (Linnaeus) 1766.  Ringed Kingfisher.  Martín-Pescador Collarejo.  R, fc – c in all water bodies in the State, including coastal lagoons, rivers, and lakes.  SL to 1500 m.

339.   Ceryle amazona mexicana Brodkorb 1940.  Amazon Kingfisher.  Martín-Pescador Amazona.  R, u – fc, SL to 1200 m. throughout the State, on all water bodies including coastal lagoons.

340.   Ceryle americana septentrionalis (Sharp) 1892.  Green Kingfisher.  Martín-Pescador Verde.  R, fc – c, SL to 2000 m. on all water bodies in the State including coastal lagoons.

341.   Ceryle aenea stictoptera (Ridgway) 1884.  Pygmy Kingfisher.  Martín-Pescador Enano.  R, now u to r, due to habitat destruction.  In Los Tuxtlas now confined to mangroves and swamp forest in the lagoons and small rivers.  Formerly was fc in arroyos in RF, but the lowland RF has been decimated in this region.


Order Piciformes

Family Ramphastidae


342.   Aulacorhynchus p. prasinus  (Gould) 1834.  Emerald Toucanet.  Tucaneta Verde.  R, fc in the western mountains – 1500 – 3000 m.  This species is an altitudinal migrant, found at lower levels on the mountains to the foothills in winter.  POF, pine forest, CF in summer, to S in winter.

a.       A. p. warneri  Winker 1997.  This ssp. is also an altitudinal migrant, coming down slope to at least the basin of Lake Catemaco (340 m).  WJS has had numerous sightings of this form at Playa Azul on the lake (Dec., Jan., Feb.).  This new ssp. is endemic to the Sierra de Los Tuxtlas.  In the Tuxtlas it is mostly a CF and montane RF resident, now scarce and engangered.

343.   Pteroglossus t. torquatus  (Gmelin) 1788.  Collared Aracari.  Tucancillo Collarejo.  R, fc.  SL to 1300 m.  Southern Veracruz, from near Orizaba south & east.  RF and edge, HF and edge, O with trees.

344.   Ramphastos s. sulfuratus  Lesson 1830.  Keel-Billed Toucan.  fc. to c.  Now more common in Los Tuxtlas than before the destruction of the RF.  RF edge, second-growth, O with scattered trees.


Family Picidae


345.   Colaptes auratus mexicanus  Swainson 1827.  Northern Flicker.  Carpintero Collarejo.  R, u. only Valle de Orizaba – not shown by range map in Howell & Webb 1995: 460 except the above.  Other sightings are needed to help elucidate the species’ distribution in the State.  WJS is sure he observed it just under the plateau edge in POF near El Puerto del Aire in Jan., 1981.

346.   Piculus aeruginosus  (Malherbe) 1862.  Bronze-winged Woodpecker.  Carpintero Alibronceado.  R, fc, northern Veracruz south to south-central part of State in Sierra de Zongolica, where WJS found it to be sympatric with the following species.  That, plus the different vocalizations and some plumage differences led him to decide that this is a species, not a race, as suggested long-ago by Lowery and Dalquest 1951:  99.  More field work is needed to discover the extent of the sympatric contact and see if sympatric breeding occurs.  HF, S.  SL to 2000 m.  WJS maintains this form as a species, R, fc, northern to south-central Veracruz.

347.   P. rubiginosus yucatanensis  (Cabot) 1844.  Golden-olive Woodpecker.  Carpintero Olivaceo.  R, fc, southern Veracruz from Sierra de Zongolica south and east.  RF and edge, S.  SL to 1300 m.

348.   Celeus castaneus (Wagler) 1829.  Chestnut-colored Woodpecker.  Carpintero Castano.  R, u. now only in Los Tuxtlas and Uxpanapa regions (?).  Endangered in both regions due to habitat loss.  RF, CF.  150 – 1000 m.

349.   Dryocopus lineatus similis (Lesson) 1847.  Lineated Woodpecker.  Carpintero Lineado.  R, fc.  SL – 1600 m, 1300 m. in Los Tuxtlas.  RF, HF, S, and often nesting in dead standing trees in O.

350.   Melanerpes f. formicivorus (Swainson) 1827.  Acorn Woodpecker.  Carpintero Arlequin.  R, fc – c in whole State SL to 900 m.  Mainly found in oak forest, but often (formerly) in CF with large evergreen oaks in Tuxtlas, where now uncommon and endangered due to loss of habitat.

351.   M. aurifrons veraecrucis (Nelson) 1900.  Golden-fronted Woodpecker.  Carpintero Frentidorado.  R, fc – c in the whole State, SL to 2500 m.  WS, HF edge, RF edge, O, S, even H).  It is our most common woodpecker.

352.   M. pucherani perileucus Todd 1910.  Black-cheeked Woodpecker  Carpintero Cachetinegro.  R, u – fc only in Los Tuxtlas and Uxpanapa Regions.  RF and edge, “cafetales”, S = mangroves & swamp forest.

353.   Sphyrapicus v. varius (Linnaeus) 1766.  Yellow-bellied Sapsucker.  Yellow-bellied Sapsucker.  Carpintero Vientre-amarillo.  NM, fc – c. mid-Sept. – 27 April (WJS).  HF and edge, RF and edge, CF, POF, pine-evergreen forest, S, O.  SL to 3500 m. on Cofre de Perote.

354.   Veniliornis fumigatus oleagineus (Reichenbach) 1854.  Smoky-brown Woodpecker.  Carpintero Café.  R, fc.  SL to 1500 m.  HF, S (includes mangroves and swamp forest).  This race is in North Veracruz South to Jalapa region.

a.       V. f. sanguinolentus (Sclater) 1859.  This ssp. is only in Southern & S.E. Veracruz.  R, now u, due to forest destruction.  SL – 1300 m.  RF and edge, CF, S (includes mangroves & swamp forest), occasionally seen in O. (with trees).

355.   Picoides villosus jardinii (Malherbe) 1845.  Hairy Woodpecker.  Carpintero-Velloso Mayor.  R, fc in western mountains – 100 – 3500 m.  POF, pine-evergreen forest, CF.  Moves down-slope in winter to HF in the foothills – Nov. – March.

356.   P. scalaris scalaris (Wagler) 1829.  Ladder-backed Woodpecker.  Carpintero Listado.  R, fc – c.  SL – 2500 m (near Las Vigas and Cofre de Perote).  POF, S, O in arid areas of the State, but u. in Los Tuxtlas and Uxpanapa regions, now more common due to clearing of the RF, leaving much O areas.  We regard D. s. ridgwayi (Oberholser) 1911 as a synonym.

357.   P. stricklandi stricklandi (Malherbe) 1845.  Strickland's Woodpecker.  Carpintero de Strickland.  R, fc – c only in mountains of central Veracruz:  from eastern slope of Pico de Orizaba N. to Cofre de Perote.  2500 – 3500 ms.  Open pine-woodland.

358.   Campephilus g. guatemalensis (Hartlaub) 1844.  Pale-Billed Woodpecker.  Carpintero Piquiclaro.  R, u – fc.  SL to 2000 m.  RF, HF, S, often nesting in dead standing trees in O.


Order Passeriformes

Suborder Tyranni


Family Furnariidae

Subfamily Dendrocolaptidae


359.   Dendrocincla a. anabatina Sclater 1859.  Tawny-winged Woodcreeper.  Trepatroncos Alileonado.  R, formerly f – c, now u – fc due to habitat loss.  Only in Los Tuxtlas and Uxpanapa regions.  RF, S (mangroves and swamp forest).  SL to 800 m.

360.   D. h. homochroa Sclater 18?9.  Ruddy Woodcreeper.  Trepatrancos Rojizo.  R. u – fc formerly from Playa Vicente east to the Uxpanapa region and in Los Tuxtlas – 5 sightings:  1 by J.C. Arvin, Mexican Birds Newsletter, Vol.I, no. 1, 1972:  ?? at the UNAM Biological Station, and 4 WJS sightings of birds following army ant columns (Eciton burchellii) on the Santa Marta massif at an elevation of ca. 700 m. (15 January, 1976); 2 other sightings in the same area on 12 Jan., 1977 and on 18 Feb., 1978, all of single birds following army ants.  Although WJS was in the same area on 30 more dates since 1978, he had no further sightings.  Not recorded by Howell & Webb, 1995: 468, range map.  Now probably extinct through habitat loss.

361.   Sittasomus griseicapillus sylvioides  LaFresnaye 1850.  Olivaceous Woodcreeper.  Trepatroncos Olivaceo.  R, fc. near SL – 1300 m. in Veracruz.  Now less common due to destruction of the humid forest.  HF, RF, S.

362.   Glyphorhynchus spirurus pectoralis Sclater & Salvin 1860.  Wedge-billed Woodcreeper.  Trepatroncos Piquicuña.  R, formerly fc, now less common with humid forest destruction.  WJS has it on his RED LIST as endangered in Los Tuxtlas and Uxpanapa regions.  RF, SL to 700 m. in Los Tuxtlas (WJS).

363.   Xiphocolaptes promeropirhynchus sclateri Ridgway 1890.  Strong-billed Woodcreeper.  Trepatroncos Gigante.  R, u – fc. 1500 – 3000 m. only in the western mountains.  POF, pine forest (arid), HF.

364.   Xiphorhynchus flavigaster ascensor Wetmore & Sarks 1962.  Ivory-billed Woodcreeper.  Trepatroncos Piquiclaro.  R, fc – c.  SL – 1500 m. (to 1300 m. in Los Tuxtlas).  RF and edge, HF, S (including mangroves and swamp forest).  This ssp. only in Los Tuxtlas and Uxpanapa regions..

a.       X. f. saltuarius Wetmore 1942.  This ssp. occurs only in northern to central Veracruz.

365.   Xiphorhynchus e. erythropygius (Sclater) 1859.  Spotted Woodcreeper. Trepatroncos Manchado.  R, c – fc; 600 to 2200 m.  HF, including CF.

366.   Dendrocincla certhia sancti-thomae (Lafresnaye) 1852.  Barred Woodcreeper.  Trepatroncos Barrado.  R, now u and perhaps endangered.  Only in the Presidio-Tezonapa, Los Tuxtlas, and Uxpanapa regions HF, RF, S.  SL to 1500 m.

367.   Lepidocolaptes l. leucogaster (Swainson) 1827.  White-striped Woodcreeper.  Trepatroncos Blanquirrayado.  R, r – u. only in western mountains in W. central Veracruz = from above Jalapa to eastern slope of Pico de Orizaba.  Humid & semi-arid piune & POK – 1500 to 3000 m.

368.   L. souleyettii insignis (Nelson) 1897.  Streak-headed Woodcreeper.  Trepatroncos Coronirrayado.  R, still fc.  SL to 1500 m. (to 1300 m. in Los Tuxtlas).  HF, RF, S, including mangroves and swamp forest).

369.   L. a. affinis (LaFresnaye) 1839.  Spot-crowned Woodcreeper.  Trepatroncos Coroni- manchado.  R, now u – fc, due to forest destruction.  1000 – 2500 m. in western mountains, 900 – 1300 m. in Los Tuxtlas, where it is an altitudinal migrant, coming down-slope as low as 600 m. in severe “nortes.”  Humid to semi-arid pine to POF, CF, HF, RF.


Subfamily Furnariidae


370.   Synallaxis e. erythrothorax Sclater 1855.  Rufous-breasted Spinetail.  Guitio Pechirrufo.  R. fc – c., southern Veracruz only.  SL – 800 m.  HF edge, RF edge, S, O with brush.  (We do not recognize S. e. furtiva  Bangs & Peters 1927.  See Lowery & Dalquest 1951: 602 and Schaldach et. al. 1997: 113.)

371.   Anabacerthia v. variegaticeps (Sclater) 1857.  Spectacled Foliage-Gleaner.  Breñero Cejudo.  R, u – fc.  Altitudunal migrant – 900 to 1300 m. in Los Tuxtlas in summer, downslope to 500 m. in winter “nortes.”  In western mountains 1000 – 2000 m. in summer, downslope in winter to 900 m. below Fortín (WJS) and to 500 m. near Xico (WJS).  Montane HF and RF, CF, down to perhaps 400 m.  (H & W. 1995:  464).

372.   A. ochrolaemus cervinigularis (Sclater) 1857.  Buff-throated Foliage-gleaner.  Breñero Gorjipálido.  R, u to fc, only in southern Veracruz.  HF, RF.  SL to 1000 m.  Now endangered in Los Tuxtlas and Uxpanapa regions.

373.   Automolus r. rubiginosus (Sclater) 1857.  Ruddy Foliage-gleaner.  Breñero Rojizo.  R, fc in western mountains – 500 – 1800 m.  HF and humid pine and evergreen forest.  WJS had 3 sightings of this species in upper montane RF and CF, all during the period 1976 – 1978.  These habitats were destroyed by cattlemen in the 1980’s and WJS fears it is now extinct in Los Tuxtlas.

374.   Xenops minutus mexicanus (Sclater) 1857.  Plain Xenops.  Picolezna Sencillo.  R. formerly fc, now u.  SL to 1000 m., but only to 900 m (formerly) in Los Tuxtlas.  HF, RF.

375.   Sclerurus m. mexicanus (Sclater) 1857.  Tawny-throated Leaftosser.  Hojarasquero Gorjirrufo.  R, fc, only in the western mountains.  Ca. 900 – 1800 m.  HF.  Probably now more uncommmon with loss of habitat.

376.   S. g. guatemalensis (Hartlaub) 1844.  Scaly-throated Leaftosser.  Hojaraasquero Oscuro.  R, only in extreme S.E. = 2 specimens known:  a ♀, 30 kms. south-southeast of Jesús Carranza on the Chalchijapan River (see Lowery & Dalquest 1951: 602) on 12 May 1949, and a ♀ specimen collected by WJS on 26 April, 1962 in RF at 4 kms. southwest of Suchilapa, in Veracruz.  Specimen in Collecion Nacional de Aves, UNAM.  Much more field work is needed to determine its distribution within the State.


Family Thamnophilidae, nec Formacariidae auctorem et AOU.


377.   Taraba major melanocrissus (Sclater) 1860.  Great Antshrike.  Batará Mayor.  R. now u, only in Los Tuxtlas and Uxpanapa regions.  RF edge, second-growth (“acahual”), O.  The type specimen of this subspecies (a ♀) was collected by A. Boucard near Sontecomapan in 1856.  SL to 750 m.

378.   Thamnophilus doliatus intermedius Ridgway 1888.  Barred Antshrike.  Batará Barrada.  R, fc. S, including swamp forest, RF edge & acahual, HF edge, H, marshes with trees & thickets.

379.   Thamnistes a. anabatinus Sclater & Salvus 1860.  Russet Antshrike.  Batara Café.  R, r. only in extreme S.E. (WJS – two sightings at 4 kms. southwest of Suchilapa, Veracruz – April 1962).  More records are needed to elucidate distribution of this species in the State.  150 m.

380.   Microrhopias quixensis boucardi (Sclater) 1868.  Dot-winged Antwren.  Hormiguerito Alimanchado.  R, now u. only in S.E. = Playa Vicente to Uxpanapa region.  WJS had sightings at 4 kms. southwest of Suchilapa in April, 1962.  New record – WJS had sightings of this unmistakable species in Los Tuxtlas = 4 definite observations of this species at close range = 6 – 12 m.  It was only in virgin RF.  WJS fears it may be extinct here now due to habitat loss.  SL to 750 m.

381.   Cercomacra tyrannina crepera Bangs 1901.  Dusky Antbird.  Hormiguero Negruzco.  R, u in Tuxtlas, from whence first recorded by Winker et al, 1992: 707, 2 birds netted and examined in the hand, and identified by the description (still valid) in Blake 1953, 4th impression 1963: 320.  WJS had at least 10 observations of this species in Los Tuxtlas, 1970’s to 1990’s.  In rest of State known only from Presidio (spec.) breeding, MLZ and from the Uxpanapa region (Pronatura observations, pers. comm. to WJS).  More records needed, esp. specimens, before they, too, become extinct due to habitat loss.  SL to 750 m.

382.   Formicarius m. moniliger Sclater 1857.  Mexican Antthrush.  Hormiguero Gallito.  R, formerly fc, now u due to habitat loss.  SL to 1500 m.  HF, RF, S.

383.   Grallaria guatimalensis mexicana Sclater 1861.  Scaled Ant-pitta.  Hormiguero-cholino Escamoso.  R, now u.  In western mountains and foothills up to 1500 m. only in HF (?).  In Los Tuxtlas to (formerly) 1200 m. & mainly occurred in lowland RF.  Now r in Tuxtlas and Uxpanapa regions due to habitat loss.  Must be considered endangered in S.E. Veracruz.


Family Tyrannidae = 62 species


384.   Ornithion s. semiflavum Sclater & Salvin 1860.  Yellow-bellied Tyrannulet.  Mosquerito Vientre-Amarillo.  SR, now u., near SL to 1300 m. in Los Tuxtlas.  Arrives 27 Feb. and March and almost the whole breeding population withdraws during late Aug. – mid-Sept., latest sighting in fall:  2 Nov.  WJS had only 3 winter records:  13 Jan. 1983 (S. H., pers. comm.) and 2 and 6 Feb. 1984.  The breeding habitat of this species is lowland & montane RF to cloud forest, thus the species is not only endangered in the Tuxtlas but also in the Uxpanapa region due to habitat loss.

385.   Camptostoma i. imberbe  Sclater 1857.  Northern Beardless-Tyrannulet.  Mosquerito Lampino Norteño.  R fc – c, throughout the State, more seen in winter when more northern birds arrive.  Arid to humid S, O with trees and shrubs.

386.   Myiopagus viridicata placens (Sclater) 1859.  Greenish Elaenia.  Elenia Verdosa.  SR, fc. in Tuxtlas = late February – late October.  1 definite winter record = a specimen taken by Carriker on 19 Jan. 1940.  Very few valid winter sightings, although “seen” on 3 different Catemaco Christmas counts, which WJS refuses to accept.  More definite, verified observations are needed ;in the State.  RF & HF edge, S,O with scattered trees & brushes.

387.   Elaenia flavogaster saturata Brodkorb 1943, nec E. f. subpagana  Salvin & Sclater 1860.  Yellow-bellied Elaenia.  Elenia Vientre-Amarillo.  SR, fc. April – Sept. or early October.  WJS had only 3 winter records in Los Tuxtlas.  More field studies are needed to confirm this behaviour pattern in other areas of the State.  Atlantic coast only.

388.   Mionectes oleagineus assimilis Sclater 1859.  Ochre-bellied Flycatcher.  Mosquero Vientre-Ocre.  R, fc.  SL to 1600 m, to 1300 in Tuxtlas.  RF, HF, S.  Now less common in Tuxtlas and Uxpanapa regions due to habitat loss.

389.   Leptopogon amaurocephalus pileatus Cabanis 1865.  Sepia-capped Flycatcher.  Mosquero Gorripardo.  R, now uncommon due to habitat loss.  Only in southern Veracruz.  SL to 1300 m.  HF, RF, S.

390.   Oncostoma cinereigulare (Sclater) 1857.  Northern Bentbill.  Picocurvo Norteño.  R, u to fc.  SL to 1500 m., 1300 m. in Los Tuxtlas.  HF, RF, S.

391.   Todirostrum sylvia schistaceiceps Sclater 1859.  Slate-headed Tody-Flycatcher.  Espatulilla Cabecigris.  R, u.  RF edge, S, only in Los Tuxtlas and Uxpanapa regions  (SE Veracruz).  SL to 1200 m.

392.   T. cinereum virididorsale Parkes 1976.  Common Tody Flycatcher.  Espatulilla Comun.  R, u – fc.  O, S, SL to 1000m.  More common on interior coastal plain.

393.   Rhynchocyclus b. brevirostris (Cabanis) 1847.  Eye-ringed Flatbill.  Picoplano de Anteojos.  R, now u – r due ot habitat destruction.  HF in the Motzorongo-Tezonapa region; u – r and endangered in Los Tuxtlas and Uxpanapa regions, again due to habitat loss.  RF, S, SL – 1200 m.

394.   Tolmomyias sulphurescens cinereiceps (Sclater) 1859.  Yellow-olive Flycatcher.  Picoplano Ojiblanco.  R, now u – fc from SL – 1300 m. S.E. Veracruz.  HF and edge, RF and edge, S.

395.   Platyrinchus cancrominus Sclater & Salvin 1860.  Stub-tailed Flycatcher.  Picoplano Ojiblanco.  R, u – r from SL to 1300 m.  HF, RF.  Not seen often until calling:  March – August. S.E. Veracruz.

396.   Onychorhynchus coronatus mexicanus Sclater 1857.  Royal Flycatcher.  Mosquero Real.  R, now u – r due to habitat loss.  SL to 1300 m.  RF. only S.E. Veracruz.

397.   Myiobius s. sulphureipygius  (Sclater) 1857.  Sulphur-rumped Flycatcher.  Mosquerito Rabadilla-Amarillo.  R. now u – r.  SL to 1000 m.  RF, S.  S.E. Veracruz – Los Tuxtlas and Uxpanapa regions.

398.   Mitrephanes p. phaeocercus  (Sclater) 1859.  Tufted Flycatcher.  Mosquero Penachudo.  R, fc. 1200 – 3000 m.  Humid POF, S,O.  Altitudinal migrant in winter, descending as low as Fortín (WJS).

399.   Contopus borealis  (Swainson) 1831.  Olive-sided Flycatcher.  Pibí Boreal.  NM, u – r, winter resident only in Los Tuxtlas?  POF, semi-deciduous S. formerly 900 – 1200 m, but POF now completely (?) destroyed in the Tuxtlas so its main wintering habitat must be considered as lost.  May still occur South of the Uxpanapa Valley on the N. side of the Sa. de la Gineta in ext. SE Veracruz.  That mountain area urgently needs field study.

400.   Contopus musicus  Swainson 1827.  nec. C. pertinax  Cabanis & Heine 1859, contra AOU et auct.  Greater Pewee.  Pibí Mayor.  R, fc in western mountains.  750 – 3000 m.  POF, HF, S.  Altitudinal migrant in winter to lower elevations.  V in Los Tuxtlas SL to 800 m., most probably wind blown from the south across the Isthmus:  6 records (WJS) and 3 records (SH field notes).

401.   Contopus s. sordidulus  Sclater 1859.  Western Peewee.  Pibí Occidental.  NM/SR in western mountains (April – Sept.).  Wintering specimens are needed to determine the northern races involved.  V = windblown? near Minatitlan, 1 spec., 27 April 1939 (see Brodkorb 1943:  66 – 67).

402.   C. virens  (Linnaeus) 1766.  Eastern Peewee.  Pibí Oriental.  T, fc – c. late Aug. – early Nov. and end March to early June.  SL to 1000 m, rarely to 2500 m in western mountains  WS on passage.  Winters in South America.

403.   C. cinereus brachytarsus  (Sclater) 1859.  Tropical Peewee.  Pibí Tropacal.  SR, u in Los Tuxtlas and Uxpanapa regions. late-Feb. – Sept., 5 Nov. (WJS).  RF and edge, S, O.

404.   Empidonax flaviventris  (Baird & Baird) 1843.  Yellow-Bellied Flycatcher.  Mosquero Vientre-Amarillo.  T and NM from North Veracruz southeast.  fc. WS in transit, in winter from North Veracruz to Uxpanapa region, mostly in coastal plain.  S, HF, RF.  In Tuxtlas only in mountains (?).

405.   E. virescens  (Vieillot) 1818.  Acadian Flycatcher.  Mosquero Verdoso.  T, fc – c.  SL to 2500 m, mostly below 1500 m (?).  WS on passage.  Sept. – 1 Nov.

406.   E. alnorum Brewster 1895.  Alder Flycatcher.  Mosquero Ailero.  T. fc – c.  SL – 2500 m., mainly below 1000 m.  O, S.

407.   E. t. traillii (Audubon) 1828.  Willow Flycatcher.  Mosquero Saucero.  T. fc – c.  SL to 1500 m, mostly below 1000 m.  O, S.

408.   E. fulvifrons rubicundus  (Cabanis & Heine) 1859.  Buff-breasted Flycatcher.  Mosquero Pechicanelo.  R, fc – c in western mountains, altitudinal migrant down to 900 m. at Fortin (WJS), summer range:  1500 to 2500 m.  POF, mainly in O.

409.   E. olberholseri  Phillips 1939.  Dusky Flycatcher.  Mosquero Oscuro.  NM – 1 record at Orizaba.  More field studies are needed to verify if it occurs in other W. mountain areas of the State.

410.   E. wrightii Baird 1858.  Gray Flycatcher.  Mosquero Gris.  V.  WJS near Hauyacocotla, 26 March, 1997: 2 birds in oak woodland recognized by down-flicking tail.  WJS knows the species from field work in NW Mexico.  TBL in other areas of western mountains.

411.   E. affinis affinis (Swainson) 1827.  Pine Flycatcher.  Mosquero Pinero.  R, fc? only recorded from South slope of Pico de Orizaba.  POF.

412.   E. hammondii Xantus 1858.  Hammond's Flycatcher.  Mosquero de Hammond.  NM, u ? only recorded from S.E. slope at the Pico de Orizaba.  POF and edge.

413.   E. pusillus  (Swainson) 1827.  NM  nec E. minimus  Baird & Baird 1843.  Least Flycatcher.  Mosquero Mínimo.  NM, fc – c wintering in the whole State.  SL to 2500 m, mostly below 1500 m.  S, O, RF edge, HF edge.

414.   E. difficilis immemoratus  Moore 1940.  “Cordilleran” Flycatcher (= Western Flycatcher).  Mosquero Occidental.  R, fc – c. western mountains – 1000 to 3000 m.  1 recorded from just N. Jalapa at ca. 1200 m.

415.   E. albigularis axillaris  Ridgway 1874.  White-throated Flycatcher.  Mosquero Gorjiblanco.  R in western mountains.  Winters in Los Tuxtlas & Uxpanapa regions.  O, H.

416.   E. flavescens imperturbatus  Wetmore 1942.  Yellowish Flycatcher.  Mosquero Amarillento.  R, u. comes downslope in winter to 150 m. (at the UNAM Biological Station), mostly above 600 m. in Summer.  Only in Los Tuxtlas, with several sightings in Uxpanapa region in Dec. (Pronatura).  Montane RF and CF.  Now endangered through habitat loss.

417.   Sayornis n. nigricans (Swainson) 1827.  Black Phoebe.  Mosquero Negro.  R, fc. SL to 2500 m.  In Los Tuxtlas it is an altitudinal migrant, wintering downslope to Lake Catemaco (alt. 340 m).  Normally seen above 500 m. in Los Tuxtlas, always along rivers.  TBL along rivers in western mountains.

418.   S. saya saya  (Bonaparte) 1825.  Say's Phoebe.  Mosquero Llanero.  NM, r in northern Veracruz, V – 2 records in Los Tuxtlas, probably wind-blown vagrants.  O.

419.   S. phoebe  (Latham) 1790.  Eastern Phoebe.  Mosquero Fibí.  NM, fc – c. Sept. – April.  SL to 2500 m.  O, S edge.  Winters to the S.E. only to Tuxtlas.

420.   Pyrocephalus rubinus blatteus  Bangs 1911.  Vermilion Flycatcher.  Mosquero Cardenal.  R, fc – c, on coastal plain from central Veracruz south.  Only NM in northern Veracruz.  SL to 2500 m., rarely.  O, including drier H, S.

a.       Pyrocephalus r. mexicanus  Sclater 1859.  R/M  North Veracruz

421.   Attila spadiceus flammulatus  (Lafresnaye) 1848.  Bright-rumped Attila.  Atila Rabadilla-brillante.  R(?), is SR in Los Tuxtlas – March – Oct. from Orizaba region S.E.  SL to 1600 m.  HF, RF, S.

422.   Rhytipterna h. holerythra  (Sclater & Salvin) 1860.  Rufous Mourner.  Papamoscas Alazán.  R, u – fc. only in extreme S.E., in Uxpanapa region.  200 – 300 m above SL.  Recorded by Lowery & Dalquest 10951: 604 and by Pronatura – Dec., 1995.  RF and second-growth forest.

423.   Myiarchus crinitus  (Linnaeus) 1758.  Great Crested Flycatcher.  Copetón Viajero.  NM, fc – c. Sept. – May.  SL to 1000 m.  Only T in northern Veracruz – Sept. – Oct. and March – May.  Winters from Orizaba region S.E.  HF and edge, RF and edge, S.

424.   M. tyrannulus cooperi Baird 1858.  Brown-Crested Flycatcher.  Copetón Tirano.  SR, fc – c in summer – April – Sept./early-Oct.  Most populations withdraw in Nov. to S.E.  u – r in SE Veracruz – Nov. – March.  Very few winter records in Los Tuxtlas (WJS) and in Uxpanapa regions (Pronatura).  HF, RF, S, O.

425.   M. c. cinerascens  (Lawrence) 1851.  Ash-throated Flycatchers.  Copetón Gorjicenizo.  NM, u – f, SL to 2000 m.  Winters S.E. to South Central Veracruz.  Rarest to Tuxlas, where most probably windblown V across the Isthmus during migration periods = Sept. – Nov. and March to May:  5 records (WJS).  Arid to semi-arid S, often in H.

426.   M. nuttingi cf. inquietus  Salvin & Godman 1889  Nutting's Flycatcher.  Copetón de Nutting.  V ? 1 sight record (WJS) on 26 March 1977, near Huayacocotla, in oak woodland (2 birds, singing – 1 showed orange mouth lining).  More records needed from that region.

427.   M. tuberculifer lawrencei  (Giraud) 1841.  Dusky-capped Flycatcher (Olivaceous Flycatcher is still a better name, as the wintering birds in the State do not have dusky caps.)  Copetón Triste.  R, fc but northern populations withdraw (Oct. – late-Feb.) and winter in the S.E.  SL to 2500 m. throughout the State, but more common at lower elevations.  HF, RF, S, O.  SL to 2800 m.

428.   Pitangus sulphuratus texanus Van Rossem 1940.  Great Kiskadee.  Luis Grande.  R, c.  SL to 1800 m.  Northern to central Veracruz, O, H, HF and RF edge, S edge.

a.       P. s. guatimalensis  (Lafresnaye) 1852.  nec P. s. derbianus Kaup.  R, central southern Veracruz  This subspecies only in S.E. Veracruz, Los Tuxtlas and Uxpanapa regions.  SL to 1300 m.

429.   Megarhynchus pitangua mexicanus  (Lafresnaye) 1852.  Boat-billed Flycatcher.  Luis Piquigrueso.  R, fc – c.  SL to 1500 m.  Mainly a forest bird.  HF, RF, S.

430.   Myiozetetes similis texensis  (Giraud) 1841.  Social Flycatcher.  Luis Gregario.  R, fc – c. SL to 1800 m.  O, H, HF and RF edges.

431.   Myiodynastes l. luteiventris Sclater 1859.  Sulphur-bellied Flycatcher.  Papamoscas Vientre-Amarillo.  SR.  fc – c, SL to 1800 m. March – Sept.  HF, RF, S, often seen in O.

432.   M. maculatus insolens  Ridgway 1887.  Streaked Flycatcher.  Papamoscas Rayado.  SR, u – fc, SL to 1500 m. March – Sept.   Not recorded from SW central Veracruz in Orizaba bulge (?).  See map in Howell & Webb, 1995:  512.

433.   Legatus leucophaius variegatus  (Sclater) 1857.  Piratic Flycatcher.  Papamoscas Pirata.  SR. fc – c. SL to 1000 m. Mar. – Aug.  Watch for nest-stealing attacks in late March & April – spectacular!  HF and RF edges, O, often in H with scattered trees.

434.   Tyrannus verticalis  Say 1823.  Western Kingbird.  Tirano Occidental.  V. 2 records, 1 near Córdoba in the 19th century and 3  records from Los Tuxtlas:  a ♀ specimen taken on 8 May, 1975, and 2 sight records at close range:  5 – 7 m, the white tail edging seen clearly and the sharp BECK! call heard, 16 April 1984, 17 April 1986.  All of these records undoubtedly involved wind-blown vagrants blown N. by violent “suradas.”

435.   T. v. vociferans Swainson 1826.  Cassin's Kingbird.  Tirano de Cassin.  V.  WJS had 12 sightings of this species in Los Tuxtlas, which he knows well from field work from Arizona to Isthmian Pacific Oaxaca, all of single birds on telephone wires, all at close ranges 6 – 10 m., and the explosive Chi-Beer! call heard each time.  All were seen during or just after violent “suradas”.  Specimens are needed to confirm this hypothesis.

436.   T. melancholicus satrapa Cabanis & Heine 1859.  Tropical Kingbird.  Tirano Tropical.  SR ? fc – c on passage – SL to 1800 m.  In Los Tuxtlas the breeding birds all leave during August.  After a gap of 2 weeks or a bit more, migratory flights (flocks of 7 to 20+ birds on diurnal transit) are seen from about 6 Sept. to early October.  WJS has had very few winter records in the Tuxtlas.  See Howell & Webb 1995: 514 for their comments on this species.  HF, RF edges, O, S edges, H.

437.   T. couchii  Baird 1858.  Couch's Kingbird.  Tirano de Couch.  R/NM u to fc.  Breeds in Los Tuxtlas and most of Veracruz State.  SL to ca. 1000 m, at least in Los Tuxtlas.  More birds seen in winter (See Howell & Webb 1995: 514 – 515 for their comments on this species).  HF, RF, S, O (but more in forest than Tropical Kingbird).

438.   T. tyrannus  Linnaeus 1758.  Eastern Kingbird.  Tirano Viajero.  T, fc – c. throughout State:  SL to 1800 m, mostly on coastal lowlands late Aug. – end Oct., and late March to May.  CO, O.

439.   T. forficatus  Gmelin 1789.  Scissor-tailed Flycatcher.  Tirano-tijereta Rosado.  T, fc – c. SL to 1500 m. Sept. to April, to latest date = 6 birds seen over Lake Catemaco on 25 May, 1988 (WJS field notes).  But WJS & SH had a total of only 7 winter records in Los Tuxtlas, and in 1959 to 1962 WJS had very few records until the Pacific Coast was reached, where it was wintering in numbers.  O.

440.   T. savana monachus Hartlaub 1844.  Fork-tailed Flycatcher.  Tirano-tijereta Sabanero.  SR, fc in Tuxtlas, only 10 winter records, always single birds seen repeatedly.  The bulk of the population withdraws during Oct.  Pronatura had no Dec. records in the Uxpanapa region, but perhaps due to the lack of wetlands (H).  In Los Tuxtlas the birds are found in O and H.  SL to 1000 m., but only on return passage in the highlands (23 Feb. 2003, WJS).

441.   Pachyramphus aglaiae aglaiae  (Lafresnaye) 1839.  Rose-throated Becard.  Cabezon Degollado.  R, fc –c. northern to central Veracruz, SL to 2700 m.  POF edge, HF edge, S edge, O, H.

a.       P. a. sumichrasti  (Nelson) 1897.  This dark ssp (with a purplish throat) is resident from the Motzorongo-Tezonapa region S.E., including Los Tuxtlas and Uxpanapa regions and is now u. – fc.  RF edge, S edge, O, H.

442.   P. m. major  (Cabanis) 1847.  Gray-collared Becard.  Cabezón Cuelligris.  SR in Los Tuxtlas, u – fc. R?  u – fc. in western mountains SL to 2500 m.  In Los Tuxtlas the bulk of the population withdraws after breeding (March to Sept).  But apparently an altitudinal migrant in the western mountains, only down to lower levels.  POF, HF, RF (mostly edges), O, H.

443.   P. cinnamomeus fulvidior  Griscom 1934.  Cinnamon Becard.  Cabezón Canelo.   R, u. only in Uxpanapa region.  3 sightings in March, 1962 at 4 km. SW of Suchilapa by WJS and field party, and sightings by Pronatura in Dec., 1995 in Uxpanapa Valley.  RF.

444.   Tityra semifasciata personata  Jardine & Selby 1827.  Masked Tityra.  Titira Enmascarada.  R, fc – c.  Now less common in S.E. due to massive forest destruction.  SL to 2500 m, mostly below 1500 m.  HF edge, RF edge, S, O, often POF.

445.   T. inquisitor fraserii (Kaup) 1852.  Black-crowned Tityra.  Titira Piquinegra.  R, fc, now less common with forest destruction.  SL to 1200 m.  HF, RF, S, O; lives more in the forest than the preceding species.


Family Cotingidae


446.   Cotinga amabilis Gould 1857.  Lovely Cotinga.  Cotinga Azuleja.  R, u, now perhaps a bit more common with the massive forest destruction, as it is more commonly seen in open areas with scattered trees.  SL to 1200 m in Los Tuxtlas.  HF edge, RF edge, O with scattered trees.  The species is frugivorous[p28] .

447.   Lipaugus u. unirufus Sclater 1859.  Rufous Piha.  Piha Rufa.  R, u to r. only in extreme S.E. = Playa Vicente (whence named by Sclater in 1859), 4 kms. S.W. of Suchilapa (WJS field party, March, 1962) and Uxpanapa Valley (Pronatura, Dec. 1995).  RF.  Call resembles a loud “wolf whistle” – unmistakable.

448.   Schiffornis turdinus veraepacis  (Sclater & Salvin) 1860.  Thrushlike Mourner.  Llorón Café.  R. only in Los Tuxtlas and Uxpanapa regions.  Formerly fc, now r due to habitat loss.  SL to 750 m. only RF.  In Los Tuxtlas it was seen only between 150 and 600 m. (WJS).


Family Pipridae


449.   Manacus candei (Parzudaki) 1841.  White-collared Manakin.  Saltarín Cuelliblanco.  Resident, formerly u – fc, now u – r.  Recorded from Playa Vicente by Sclater, 1859; from Uxpanapa Region by Lowery and Dalquest 1951: 605 = 1 ♂ specimen; and by WJS’ field party in March, 1962 at 4 kms. S.W. of Suchilapa (4 observations).

450.   Pipra m. mentalis Sclater 1857.  Red-capped Manakin R, u due to deforestation.  SL to 750 m.  Formerly occurred from Córdoba-Tezonapa regions South To Uxpanapa region, in lowland HF and RF.  Still present also in Los Tuxtlas region, but rare!


Suborder Passeres

Family Alaudidae


451.   Eremophila alpestris chrysolaema (Wagler) 1831.  Horned Lark.  Alauda Cornuda.  R/NM?  Only known in Veracruz from western mountains – Perote to Pico de Orizaba, where recorded by Sumichrast 1869 and seen by WJS in upper Orizaba Valley.  Specimens are needed to verify the race involved.  1800 – 2200 m.  O, or at POK edge.


Family Hirundinidae


452.   Progne s. subis (Linnaeus) 1758.  Purple Martin.  Martín Azul.  T, fc – c. late July – Oct. and Feb. – May through the State.  SL to 3000 m.  WS on passage.  No winter records.

453.   P. c. chalvbea  (Gmelin) 1789.  Gray-breasted Martin.  Martín Pechigris.  SR, fc – c. SL to 1500 m., March – Aug.  HF edge, RF edge, S edge, O, H, often in towns with trees.

454.   Tachycineta bicolor  (Vieillot) 1808.  Tree Swallow.  Golandrina Arbolera.  NM, fc – c. SL to 2500 m. late Aug. – May.  But winters in low numbers in Los Tuxtlas (WJS).  O, H.

455.   T. t. thalassina  (Swainson) 1827.  Violet-green Swallow.  Golandrina Cariblanca.  NM,  but perhaps r resident in Los Tuxtlas (Winker et al. 1992: 709; and WJS sightings).  First recorded in fall on 6 Sept., 1970, and latest in fall was 11 Nov.  WJS’ spring passage dates were 21 March, 1984 to 6 May, 1983.  See Schaldach, Escalante, & Winker 1997: 121 – 122 for information on spring migration flights from S – N across the Isthmus of Tehuantepec.

456.   T. a. albilinea  (Lawrence) 1863.  Mangrove Swallow.  Golandrina Manglera.  R? fc – c. SL to 500 m, but follows rivers inland.  Only SR in Los Tuxtlas; bulk of the summering population withdrawing during Sept., breeding late Feb. – Aug.  Very few winter residents, perhaps more northern breeders?  O, H, Co, S = mangroves and swamp forest.

457.   Riparia r. riparia  (Linnaeus) 1758.  Bank Swallow.  Golandrina Ribereña.  T., fc – c throughout the State – Aug. – Oct., and mid-March – May.  WS, but mainly over coastal plain and Co, O, often seen in trees in H when resting.

458.   Stelgidopteryx ridgwayi stuarti  Brodkorb 1942.  Ridgway’s Swallow.  Golandrina-aliserrada Yucateca.   SR, u. in Los Tuxtlas – 5 May – 10 Aug. – at Lake Catemaco (WJS).  Specimens are urgently needed of this form, as these northwestern-most birds are probably a new subspecies – i.e. darkest? and most distinctly striped on the breast and flanks (see Phillips 1986: 24  - 25, and illustration).

459.   Stelgidopteryx s. serripennis  (Audubon) 1838.  Northern Rough-winged Swallow.  Golandrina-aliserrada Norteño.  R/NM, fc – c.  Fall transient periods when large flocks are seen on passage are Sept. – Oct. and late March – May, but small flocks normally seen in Los Tuxtlas from Sept. – late April.  O, Co, H.  SL to 2500 m.

460.   Hirundo rustica erythrogaster  Boddaert 1783.  Barn Swallow.  Golandrina Ranchero.  R/M. fc – c, especially during migration periods – Aug. – Nov., and March – May.  Some coastal flights recorded by SH & SW[nn29]  at Tecolutla during April have been estimated as up to 5000 birds per hour.  WJS has seen similar flights off the Tuxtla coast in April.  O, Co, WS on passage, often in towns & on ranches in Veracruz State.  T in North Veracruz, rare W. resident in South Veracruz.

461.   H. albifrons albifrons  Rafinesque 1822.  Cliff Swallow.  Golandrina Risquera.  T. throughout the State – mid-Aug. – Oct., and Feb. – May.  No winter records.  Often in large flocks.  Co, O.  SL to 1500 m.? mainly on coastal plain.

462.   Hirundo fulva pelodoma  Brooke 1974.  Cave Swallow.  Golandrina Cuevicola.  T. through the State, but not recorded until now.  WJS has for years studied large flocks of Cliff Swallows resting on wires across the shore of Lake Catemaco with a 60x scope.  To his surprise, he found that each flock of 100 birds (of 4 recognizable subspecies – allifrons, hypopolius, swainsoni, and tachina) each flock held 11-16 of the present species!  The fact that this species is also migratory may be startling, but WJS believes that more observations of migrating flocks of Cliff Swallows in the State will confirm these observations.  Above all, specimens are needed, since we do not know where these birds go.  See Phillips 1986: 37 & 38.


Family Corvidiae


463.   Cyanocitta stellerii coronata (Swainson) 1827.  Steller's Jay.  Chara de Steller.  R, fc – c on the Cofre de Perote massif 2000  - 3500 m.  POF & Pine forest, and edges.

a.       C. s. azteca Ridgway 1899, not diademata Bonaparte 1851, contra AOU 1983 & Howell & Webb 1995.  R. fc – c. on E. slope of R Mt. Orizaba in Veracruz = 1900 – 3500 m.  POF, pine forest, and edges.  See Phillips 1986: 44 – 45 for an elucidation of this interesting jay distribution.

464.   Aphelocoma californica sumichrastii (Ridgway) 1874.  Scrub Jay.  Chara Azuleja.  R, fc – c. 1000 – 2500 m. on western mountains  POF, edge, S, O.

465.   A. u. ultramarina  (Bonaparte) 1825.  Gray-breasted Jay.  Chara Pechigris.  R, fc – c. 1000 – 3500 m.  Arid to humid POF, S, O,  mountains, W. central Veracruz..

466.   A. unicolor concolor (Cassin) 1848.  Unicolored Jay.  Chara Unicolor.  R, fc – c humid pine-oak and HF, mainly in CF, only on SE slope of Pico de Orizaba.  1200 – 1500 m.

467.   Cyanocorax yncas luxuosus  (Lesson) 1839.  Green Jay.  Chara Verde.  R, fc – c in northern and central Veracruz.  SL to 2000 m in western mountains  HF and edge, S and edge, CF.

a.       C. y. persimilis  Phillips 1966.  R, u – fc. in Los Tuxtlas south into Oaxaca & S.E. to Uxpanapa region (Pronatura).  RF and edge, CF.  SL (formerly) to 1300 m. in Los Tuxtlas.  See Schaldach, Escalante and Winker 1997: 122-123 for maintenance of this race.

468.   C. yucatanicus ????  Yucatá[p30] n Jay.  Chara Yucateca.  V – one sighting by WJS, JNS, Luis Petete, Warren Rook, & R.C. Crossin, within the State of Veracruz by ca. 200 m, at the bridge over the Rio Tomalá, March 1961.

469.   Psilorhinus m. morio (Wagler) 1829.  Brown Jay.  Chara Papán, Pepe.  R – fc –c. SL to 1000 m, at times to 1300 m. in Los Tuxtlas (March, 1994 – WJS and PEP).  RF and edge, HF and edge, S, O.  Still very common and very noisy.

470.   Cyanolyca nana (DuBus) 1847.  Dwarf Jay.  Chara Enana.  R, u – fc. in western mountains, 1600 – 3000 m., mainly in humid POF and pine-evergreen (CF) forest.  Now less common due to habitat loss?  No recent records?  See Howell & Webb, 1995: 543.

471.   C. cucullata mitrata Ridgway 1899.  Azure-Hooded Jay.  Chara Gorriazul.  R, fc – c. 1000 – 2000 m. in western mountains.  HF and pine-evergreen forest, includes CF.

472.   Corvus corax sinuatus Wagler 1829.  Common Raven.  Cuervo Grande.  V? or R? in the western mountains of Veracruz.  The AOU English name is ridiculous – there exist no Southern Ravens!  The word “common” is exactly right, as the species exists in all N. Hemisphere land-masses.  More investigation is needed in the western mountains of Veracruz to confirm its presence as a breeding bird.  2500 m. – 3000 m. on Cofre de Perote and on Pico de Orizaba.

473.   C. cryptoleucus cryptoleucus  Gouch 1854.  White-necked Raven.  Cuervo Llanero.  NM, fc to northern Veracruz.  O.

474.   C. imparatus  Peters 1929.  Tamaulipas Crow.  Cuervo Tamaulipeco.  R, fc.  Ranges to south of Laguna Tamiahua.  O, Co.


Family Laniidae


475.   Lanius ludovicianus mexicanus  Brehm 1854.  Loggerhead Shrike.  Lanio Americano.  R, fc – u in western mountains.  O.

a.       L. l. excurbitorides  Swainson 1832.  NM, now u.

Lanius reaches South Veracruz in winter.


Family Paridae


476.   Parus s. sclateri  Kleinschmidt 1897.  Mexican Chickadee.  Paro Mexicano.  R, fc – c. 1500 – 3500 m.  Western mountains (only on Pico de Orizaba?).  TBL on the Cofre de Perote.  POF and conifer forest.

477.   P. w. wollweberi  (Bonaparte) 1850.  Bridled Titmouse.  Paro Embridado.  R, fc – c. E. slope of Pico de Orizaba and near Acultzingo.  1000 – 3000 m.  POF and S = oak forest.

478.   P. bicolor atricristatus Cassin 1850. Tufted Titmouse.  Paro Crestinegro.  R. fc – c. in Northern Veracruz.  SL to 1500 m.  S, O.  A disjunct population existed in Los Tuxtlas (Andrle 1967: 174) and WJS sightings.  Oak woodland on the South side of Volcan Santa Marta.  Whether it still exists there must be verified.


Family Aegithalidae


479.   Aegithalos minimus personatus (Bonaparte) 1850.  Bushtit.  Sastrecillo.  R, fc – c. 1500 – 3500 m. in the western mountains.  POF, oak forest, O.


Family Sittidae


480.   Sitta pygmaea “flavinucha”  Van Rossem 1939.  Pygmy Nuthatch.  Saltapalos Enano.  R, fc 2000 – 2500 m. only on E. slope of Pico de Orizaba.  Pine Forest.  See Phillips 1986:  107.

481.   Sitta carolinensis mexicana  Nelson & Palmer 1894.  White-breasted Nuthatch.  Saltapalos Pechiblanco.  R, fc? 2000 – 2500 m. only on E. Slope of Pico de Orizaba, in Veracruz.  Pine forest & P.O.F.


Family Troglodytidae


482.   Cistothorus palustris dissaeptus  Bangs 1902.  Marsh Wren.  Saltapared Pantanero.  NM, fc. to central Veracruz – Sept. – end April., rarely to Los Tuxtlas. (1 spec., 25 April, Minn.  See Winker et al. 1992: 710 and sight records by WJS manuscript to be released.)  H.  SL to 2500 m. in Veracruz State.

a.       C. p. laingi  (Harper) 1926. NM.  This ssp. has been recorded wintering in the Jalapa region.

483.   Cistothorus platensis stellariis  Naumann 1823.  Sedge Wren.  Saltapared Sabanero.  NM, fc wintering in northern Veracruz only, mainly on the coastal plain.  O, H.

a.       C. p. xalapensis  Dickerman 1975.  R, u Jalapa region only?  O, H.

b.      C. p. warneri  Dickerman 1975.  R. u Los Tuxtlas and Uxpanapa regions.  O,H.

484.   Campylorhynchus z. zonatum  (Lesson) 1832.  Band-backed Wren.  Matraca-Barrada Tropical.  R, fc. SL to 2500 m. northern to central Veracruz.  HF, CF, POF, S, O.

a.       C. z. restrictum  (Nelson) 1901.  This ssp. is common in S.E. Veracruz – Los Tuxtlas and Uxpanapa regions (Pronatura).  RF, CF, S, O.  It is our most common wren, or at least the noisiest.

485.   C. g. gulare  Sclater 1860.  Spotted Wren.  Matraca Manchada.  R?  WJS had 2 sightings of this species (which he knows well from field work in Colima & SW Jalisco) at a point near Zacualpilla, Veracruz, on 24 March, 1977.  Further field work is needed on this species in Veracruz State.

486.   C. rufinucha rufinucha  (Lesson) 1838.  Rufous-naped Wren.  Matraca Nuquirrufa.  R, u – fc. arid coastal plain, SL to 300 m., from vicinity of Puente Nacional S.E. to the coast and as far E. as Playa del Toro Prieto[B31]  in Los Tuxtlas.  S, thorn forest, O, Co (in dune vegetation).

487.   C. megalopterum nelsoni  (Ridgway) 1903.  Gray Cactus Wren = “Gray-Barred Wren.”  Matraca-Baradada Serrana.  R, fc, 2000 – 3000 m., u. down to 1500 m. in Veracruz (probably altitudinal migrants).  Humid & arid POF and conifer forest and edge.  Only in the western mountains.

488.   Microcerculus philomela  (Salvin) 1861.  Northern Nightingale Wren.  Saltapared Ruiseñor.  R?  Pronatura had a sighting in the Uxpanapa Valley in “acahual” (15 – 20 years old second growth forest) in Dec. 1995.

489.   Henichorhina leucophrys mexicana  Nelson 1897.  Gray-breasted Wood-wren.  Saltapared-Selvatico Pechigris.  R, fc. to c, above 950 m. to 3000 m. in the western mountains.  A disjunct population was on the Santa Marta Massif in Los Tuxtlas.  No recent records.  HF and pine-evergreen forest on the W. mountains  Montane RF & CF on Volcán Santa Marta in the Tuxtla region, most of which has been destroyed.

490.   H. leucosticta prostheleuca  (Sclater) 1857.  White-breasted Wood-Wren.  Saltapared-Selvatico Pechiblanco.  R, fc – c.  Found in HF, RF, and S (swamp forest) in the whole State except the northern 1/5th.  Still not uncommon in Los Tuxtlas and Uxpanapa regions, the areas where the most forest destruction has occurred.  SL – 1300 m.

491.   Uropsila l. leucogastra  (Gould) 1837.  White-bellied Wren.  Saltapared Vientre-blanco.  R, fc – c. SL to 500 m.  S, HF, RF, thorn forest on coastal plain in South Veracruz.

a.       U. l. centralis  Phillips 1986.  This ssp. occurs from central to northern Veracruz.  HF, S, thorn forest on coastal plain.

492.   Troglodytes “aedon aedon”  Vieillot 1809.  Northern House Wren.  Saltapareo-continental Norteño.  NM, fc – c. mid-Sept – mid May.  SL to 2500 m WS on passage, S, O.  Not shown by Howell and Webb 1995: 567 as occurring in the Tuxtla region, but does winter there (WJS Minn. records).

a.       T. “aedon” parkmani  Audubon 1839.  This western ssp. is NM, u – fc in the State, occurring in the Tuxtlas also (first recorded by Wetmore 1943:  300).  S, O.

b.      T. “a.” brunneicollis  Sclater 1858.  Brown-throated House Wren.  R, fc. in western mountains (only E. slope of Pico de Orizaba?) 1600 – 3000 m.  POF and oak woodland, O.

c.       T. “a.” intermedius  Cabanis 1860.  SR in Tuxtlas.

493.   T. bewickii mexicanus Deppe 1830.  Bewick’s Wren.  Saltapared de Bewick.  R, u. only two records = SW of Jacales (now called La Ponderosa on State maps), 2000 m., SW of Zacuapilla, in POF, (Lowery & Dalquest 1951:  619, ♂ specimen), and in the valley above Cd. Mendoza (WJS and Pronatura sights at about 2100 m.).

494.   Thryothorus ludovicianus tropicalis  Lowery and Newman 1949.  Carolina Wren.  Saltapared de Carolina.  R, rd? only in extreme NW Veracruz (WJS sights at 7 km S.E. of El Ébano on Mex. Highway 110).  More field work is needed in that region to define this species distribution in the State.

495.   T. maculipectus maculipectus  Lafresnaye 1845.  Spot-breasted Wren.  Saltapared Pechimanchado.  R, fc – c. SL to 1300 m.  HF and edge, RF and edge, S, O.  This ssp. is in southern Veracruz.

a.       T. m. microstictus  Griscom 1930.  This ssp. is in C. to N. Veracruz, mainly on the coastal plain.

496.   Hylorchilus sumichrasti  (Lawrence) 1871.  Sumichrast’s Wren.  Cuevero de Sumichrast.  R, fc, but only in a small forested area on Karst (block) limestone S.E. of Córdoba (Amatlán to near Presidio).  S & HF.  This species has the most limited area of all Veracruz birds and is endemic to the State.  One extra-limited sight record (Binford & Moreny – 8 June 1964, 5 mi. = 8 km. west of Temascal, Oaxaca.  Binford 1989:  202).

497.   Hylorchilus navai.  Crossin & Ely 1973.  Nava's Wren.  Cuevero de Nava.  R, u?  WJS and his field party (JNS, PH, JGB) had many sightings during the week we spent camped in RF at 4 kms. SW of Suchilapa, Veracruz in 1962, but we were unable to collect a bird.  We heard the distinctive “EENK” or “PEENK” calls constantly during this week and had many quick glimpses of dark wrens.  Definitely recorded from near that same area by Howell & Webb 1995: 562.

498.   Catherpes m. mexicanus  (Swainson) 1829. Canyon Wren.  Saltapared Barranquero.  R, fc. 1000 – 3000 m. in the western mountains, cliffs, canyons, buildings, all in open areas.

499.   Salpinctes o. obsoletus  (Say) 1823.  Rock Wren.  Saltapared Roquero.  R, fc. 1000 – 3000 m. in the western mountains?  One specimen from near Zacualpilla, 9 Nov. 1948 (2000 m.)  Distribution in State needs study.


Family Cinclidae


500.   Cinclus mexicanus dickermani  Phillips 1966.  American Dipper.  Mirlo-Acuático Americano.  R, fc. 900 m. (at Fortín WJS) to 3000 m. in western mountains.  Only along streams & rivers.


Family Mimidae


501.   Mimus  polyglottos  (Linnaeus) 1758.  Northern Mockingbird.  Cenzontle Norteño.  R, fc – u in the northern to central parts of the State, SL to 2500 m.  NM, u – r in southern Veracruz SL to 1800 m. Sept. – April.  O.

502.   Mimus gilvus gracilis  Cabanis 1851.  Southern Mockingbird.  Cenzontle Sureño.  SR in Los Tuxtlas, March to end-Aug. (WJS).  Has nested near Catemaco (See Phillips 1986: 182).  O, S, edge.  No records from Uxpanapa area ? SL – 500 m.

503.   Dumatella c. carolinensis  (Linnaeus) 1766.  Grey Catbird.  Pájaro-gato Gris.  NM, fc. SL to 2000 m. in the whole State.  WS on passage, wintering in HF and edge, RF and edge, S (thickets).  Late Sept. – late May.

a.       D. c. ruficrissa  Aldrich 1946.  NM – This subspecies (breeds W. U.S. and Canada) has also been recorded from the State of Veracruz.

504.   Melanotis c. coerulescens  (Swainson) 1827.  Blue Mockingbird.  Mulato Azul.  R, fc – c. 1500 – 2500 m. in western mountains only.  POF, oak forest, no lowland records?

505.   Toxostoma l. longirostre  (Lafresnaye) 1838.  Long-billed Thrasher.  Cuitlacoche Piquilargo.  R, fc – c in central Veracruz, SL to 1500 m.  In central Veracruz only in the western mtn. & foothills, 700 to 1500 m.  1 V. record in Los Tuxtlas, Dec. 1974, on the coast near Playa Escondida, most probably a wind-blown vagrant during a “norte” (Winker et al. 1992:  711).

506.   T. ocellatum ocellatum  (Sclater) 1862.  Ocellated Thrasher.  Cuitlacoche Manchado.  R, fc? 1500 – 2100 m. on E. slope of Pico de Orizaba in oak woodland (WJS) and below the Puerto del Aire above town of Acultzingo, 2000 – 2100 m, again in oak woodland – Lamb specimens in MLZ and sightings by WJS & Roland Wauer & group in Jan. 1980.  Should occur in oak woodland in N.W. area of Veracruz – Zacualpan & area.

507.   T. c. curvirostre (Swainson) 1827.  Curve-Billed Thrasher.  Cuitlacoche Piquicurvo.  R, fc in western mountains – 1500 – 3250 m. on the Cofre de Perote.  Does not occur in the lowlands of the State.  O, in pine forest and POF edge.


Family Certhiidae  Incertae Sedis


508.   Certhia americana alticola  Miller 1895.  Brown Creeper.  Trepador Americano.  R, fc in western mountains 1500 – 3500 m.  POF, conifer forest, and oak woodland, altitudinal migrant in winter.


Family Bombycillidae


509.   Bombycilla cedrorum (Vieillot) 1808.  Cedar Waxwing.  Ampelis Americano.  NM, fc – c, but irregular – Oct. – early June.  SL – 3000 m.  Winters throughout the State.  Pine forest, POF, HF edge, RF edge, S, oak woodland.

510.   Ptiliogonys c. cinereus Swainson 1827.  Gray Silky-Flycatcher.  Cauplinero Gris.  R, fc – c. in western mountains – 2000 to 3500 m, down to 1000 m. in winter (altitudinal migrant).  POF, and pine and HF (in winter), also O with trees.  This is the correct spelling of the genus – see Phillips 1991:  4.

511.   Phainopepla nitens lepida Van Rossem 1925.  Phainopepla.  Capulinero Negro.  V. 1 spec. record, below the Puerto del Aire and above Acultzingo – MLZ.  May be found as a vagrant anywhere on the plateau edge of the western mountains.


Family Sylviidae


512.   Regulus c. calendula (Linnaeus) 1766.  Ruby-crowned Kinglet.  Reyezuelo Sencillo.  NM, fc, only in western mountains to central Veracruz?  r but regular winter visitor in Los Tuxtlas in O, both lowland and to 700 m. (WJS sightings; Winker et al. 1992: 710).

513.   Ramphocaenus rufiventris ssp.  Long-billed Gnatwren.  Soterillo Pieudo.  R, formerly fc – c on Atlantic slope:  Córdoba – Presidio region S.E. to Los Tuxtlas and Uxpanapa regions.  HF and edge, RF edge, S; SL to 750 m., now less common everywhere due to habitat loss.  (See Phillips 1991: 19.)

514.   Polioptila c. caerulea  (Linnaeus) 1766.  Blue-gray gnatcatcher.  Perlita Grisilla.  NM, fc – c.  SL to 2500 m.  Oak S, HF & edge, RF & edge, O.  The subspecies P. c. deppei, Van Rossem 1934, breeds also in Los Tuxtlas – Mar. – end August; it is the only gnatcatcher seen there in the summer.  The migrant subspecies is first seen in numbers in September and is fc all winter to April, when flocks last seen on passage.

515.   Polioptila plumbea brodkorbi Parkes 1979.  Tropical Gnatcatcher.  Tropical Gnatcatcher.  Perlita Tropical.  SR in Los Tuxtlas, u. March – July.  Bulk of population withdraws during August.  SL TO 500 m.  RF, S (especially swamp forest).


Family Turdidae


516.   Zoothera p. pinicola (Sclater) 1859.  Aztec Thrush.  Zorzal Azteca.  R, u – f. in western mountains = 1800 – 3500 m.  POF, pine-evergreen forest, oak woodland.

517.   Turdus m. migratorius Linnaeus 1758.  American Robin.  Zorzal Pechirrojo.  NM, u – r in Los Tuxtlas (see Wetmore 1943: 303) and at Orizaba (see Duvall 1945: 627 – 628).  But WJS has sight records, all identified by seeing the white tail spots, in almost every year of his residence in Los Tuxtlas.  It seems to winter normally at about 600 – 1000 m. here, but apparently comes down-slope with violent, cold “nortes,” once to SL near Jicacal (12 birds) and a number of times down to the level of Lake Catemaco (340 m).  More study is needed in the State to elucidate the wintering status of this species.

a.       T. m. phillipsii  Bangs 1915.  R in the western mountains, fc. to c. 1500 – 3500 m.  Downslope in winter.  POF, pine forest, S (oak woodland) and forest edges.

518.   T. infuscatus  Lafresnaye 1844.  Black Robin.  Zorzal Negro.  R, 1200 – 3000 m., to lower elevations in winter in western mountains.  An isolated population was on the Tuxtla mountains, but may now be near extinction or extinct? due to habitat loss.  In the interior mountains it is mainly in POF and pine-evergreen forest.  In Los Tuxtlas it was mainly in CF (evergreen oak and sweet gum), most of which was destroyed during the 1970’s & 1980’s.  The species was an altitudinal migrant during “nortes” in the Tuxtlas:  lowest record was a pair seen at the UNAM’s Biological Station at 150 m. above SL, on 12 Jan. 1985 (WJS).

519.   T. phaeopygus assimilis  Cabanis 1850.  Nec T. assimilis auct.  See Phillips 1991:  60.  White-throated Robin.  Zorzal Gorjiblanco.  R, fc – c. in western mountains, 900 m at Fortín (WJS) to 3000 m.  Altitudinal migrant at lower elevations in winter.  Conifers, incl. POF, downslope to HF, at times to S (esp. oak woodland).

a.       T. p. lecauchen  Sclater 1858.  This subspecies is R.? on the Tuxtla mountains.  But the form is the blackest on the back in the ♂ of all speciments WJS has seen.  He needs more fresh plumaged specimens to determine if it is a new subspecies.  The species is also an altitudinal migrant in Los Tuxtlas, down to 150 m. at the UNAM Biological Station and to the Hotel Playa Azul on Lake Catemaco (340& m).  The species is now r. in Los Tuxtlas due to habitat loss.

520.   T. rufopalliatus ssp. Rufous-backed Robin.  Zorzal Dorsirrufo.  V. a pair seen at 4 km. SW of Suchilapa, in Veracruz, 1962, by WJS’ field party after we had collected a pair at Montebello, Oaxaca (ca. 15 kms. south of this point) and 1 day before we had collected another pair at Montebello; two different “suradas” were involved in blowing these north.  The strength of these trans-isthmus gales has to be experienced to believe in WJS’ vagrant theories.  White-collar & tie biologists still know nothing about them.

521.   T. grayi tamaulipensis (Nelson) 1897.  Clay-colored Robin.  Zorzal Pardo.  R, fc – c. throughout the State, SL to 2100 m.  O, S edge, HF edge.  This ssp. ranges from northern to central Veracruz.

a.       T. grayi lanyoni Dickerman 1981.  This ssp. is in southern & S.E. Veracruz.  SL to 1300 m.  O, S edge, RF edge.

522.   Catharus mustelinus (Gmelin) 1789.  Wood Thrush.  Zorzalito Maculado.  NM, fc – c. 27 Aug. (WJS) – 15 May (Minn.)  SL to 1500 m.  Only transient in northern half of the State, wintering in the southern half.  See Phillips 1991: 75-76, and Rappole, Ramos, & Winker (1989, Auk 106: 148).  HF, S, RF.

523.   C. g. guttatus  (Pallas) 1811.  Hermit Thrush.  Zorzalito Colirrufo.  NM, u – fc.  In the State as a whole the following races have been identified = C. guttatus guttatus.  Extreme N.E. Veracruz near SL.

a.       C. g. audubonii  (Baird) 1864.  In the western mountains and in the Tuxtlas at SL (WJS) = a dead bird on the coast examined & measured.

b.      C. g. nanus  (Audubon) 1838.  A specimen taken near Sontecomapan and identified as this form by A. R. Phillips (see Winker et al. 1992: 710).  The bird identified by WJS was a large ♂ = W (not flattened) = 109, in fresh fall plumage, heavily spotted with black on the breast and greyish on the back, the crissum pale buff.  More collecting is needed, as always, to determine other races of this very variable species in winter or in transit in the State.  Sight records of Catharus thrushes are always dubious, due to confusing similarities among the subspecies.  WS in transit, POF, oak forest, S (including swamp forest), HF, and RF (both of the last 2 at higher elevations in winter).

524.   C. occidentalis fulvescens Nelson 1897.  Russet Nightingale-Thrush.  Zorzalito Piquipardo.  R, fc in western mountains.  1500 – 3500 m., altitudinal migrant in winter to lower elevations.  Easily confused with the following species, but identified in flight by a streak of buffy to yellowish on the undersides of the wings, across the base of the primaries & secondaries.  The under-wing in the following species is plain gray.

525.   Catharus frantzii omiltemensis Ridgway 1905.  “Ruddy-capped” Nightingale-Thrush.  (Bear in mind that the species above and this one have ruddy caps, with no discernible difference.!)  R, u – fc. in the western mountains – 900 m (at Fortín, Pronatura spec., WJS sights) to 3500 m.  Coniferous forest, POF, descends to HF in winter.

526.   C. ustulatus ustulatus (Nuttall) 1840.  Swainson's Thrush.  Zorzalito de Swainson.  NM, fc– c.  The ssp. C. ustulatus appalachiensis, C. ustulatus incanus, and C. ustulatus swainsonii are the only recorded races of Olive-backed Thrush in Veracruz State, and all are T, with no winter records.  The subspecies C. ustulatus ustulatus and the new subspecies C. u. phillipsi, Ramos 1991, also recorded from Veracruz (Russet-backed Thrush), are NM fc – c.  Both races are known to winter in the State from specimens – Oct. to about mid-May (the Olive-backed Thrush).  There are reasons to believe (i.e. different breeding habitats in the north that all subspecies near C. ustulatus swainsoni are only transient through Central America, wintering in South America) that 2 different species are involved here.  More genetic and other morphological studies are needed.  SL to 3000 m.  The wintering subspecies are found only from the C-western mountains to the Tuxtlas and Uxpanapa regions.

527.   Catharus m. minimus  (Lafresnaye) 1848.  Gray-Cheeked Thrush.  Zorzalito Carigris.  T, r, mainly coastal?  1 record from NE Veracruz (prob. 6 May) INIREB, and transient specimens from circa 4 Nov. in fall, 2 dead birds measured by WJS at the Roca Partida lighthouse: 101.3 and 101.8; these are normal for eastern North American ♂♂, fide J. T. Marshall (in Phillips 1991: 94).  In spring, the Minn. group took specimens from 17 April to 16/17 May, in Los Tuxtlas.  Thus, it appears that the fall flights are almost entirely over water (of the eastern subspecies).  The dead birds at the light-house were found 2 – 3 days after a violent norther.  Much more field work is needed on the migrations of this species in Veracruz State.

528.   C. f. fuscescens  (Stephens) 1817.  Veery.  Zorzalito Rojizo.  T, u.  The above species and this one both are apparently trans-Gulf migrants landing on the coast of S.E. Veracruz in the Tuxtla region, and continuing overland along the Atlantic coast of Middle America to winter in Colombia to Brazil (See map in Howell & Webb 1995:  587 and Phillips 1991:  93 – 95 and 96 – 101.  The return trip is almost the same (trans-Gulf) = SH & WJS sights of birds flying out to sea at dark from the beach at La Barra de Sontecomapan.  The Catharus thrushes are not recommended to birdwatchers; even Phillips was deceived by a specimen (photo facing page 104, Phillips 1991), which he identified as C. fuscescens; the specimen was thoroughly re-studied by Patten and identified as a C. minimus!  (Dickerman, et al. 1997).  Remember, even the most knowledgable are fooled, and with the bird in hand!  The following subspecies have been recorded in the State:

a.       C. f. pulichorum Phillips 1991.  T  30 April – 6 May.

b.      C. f. fuliginosus (Howe) 1900.  T  30 April – 8 May; 27 Sept, 3 Oct.

c.       C. f. salicola (Ridgway) 1882.  T  30 April – 5 May.

529.   C. aurantürostris melpomene (Cabanis) 1850.  Orange-billed Nightingale-Thrush.  Zorzalito.  R, fc – c, 600 – 2500 m. in the western mountains, coming down-slope to 600 m. in winter.  Arid O to humid POF, down to HF and edge.

a.       C. a clarus  Jody 1894.  Is a NM, r – several records, in winter, also in the western mountains (INIREB).  See Phillips, 1991: 106.

530.   C. m. mexicanus (Bonaparte) 1856.  Black-headed Nightingale-Thrush.  Zorzalito Cabecinegro.  R, fc – c in the mountains of W. central Veracruz – 750 to 1800 m.  Another altitudinal migrant, coming down-slope to lower elevations in winter.  HF, oak woodland, and second-growth.

a.       C. m. cantator  Griscom 1930.  This subspecies is only in Los Tuxtlas and presumably also in the mountains above the Uxpanapa regions.  R, formerly fc, now u.  It is also an altitudinal migrant, down to near SL in Los Tuxtlas in Dec. and Jan.  RF, CF.

531.   Sialia sialis nidificans  Phillips 1991.  Eastern Bluebird.  Azulejo Gorjicanelo.  R, fc. 600 to 2700 m. in the western mountains.  POF, pine woodland, O.

532.   S. m. mexicana  (Swainson) 1827.  Western Bluebird.  Azulejo Gorjiazul.  R, fc. 1500 – 3000 m. in the western mountains.  Pine woodland, POF, oak woodland.

533.   Myadestes o. obscurus Lafresnaye 1839.  Brown-backed solitaire.  Clarín Jilguero.  R, fc – c. 600 – 3000 m.  Another altitudinal migrant in winter, down to lower elevations Dec. & Jan.  POF, S, HF.  In western mountains.  WJS had 1 V record – an adult in the forest at Nanciyagaon 28 Feb., 1997, in Los Tuxtlas.

534.   M. u. unicolor Sclater 1857.  Slate-coloured Solitaire.  Clarín Unicolor.  R, fc, now u? 1000 m. – 2700 m. in the western mountains; down to lower elevations in winter (Dec. – Feb.), pine forest to HF; near SL (in winter) to 1300 m. in Los Tuxtlas, where breeds in CF, now u due to cage-bird traffic & habitat loss.


Family Motacillidae


535.   Anthus rubescens geophilus  Lea & Edwards 1950.  Water Pipit.  Bisbita Americana.  NM, r – only recorded by specimens (3) taken by the Minn. group on the beach at Jicacal, Los Tuxtlas, on 17 Oct. 1974, identified by Phillips 1991: 146 – 147 as Anthus rubescens geophilus (1) and A. r. pacificus (2).  TBL.  O, Co.

a.       A. r. pacificus  Todd 1935.  NM  Both reach Tuxtlas.

536.   Anthus spragueii  (Audubon) 1844.  Sprague's Pipit.  Bisbita de Sprague.  NM, r. only 3 specimens recorded from the State: 1 at Minatitlan, 1 at Veracruz Puerto collected by M. Trujillo (?) for Salvin & Godman, and one collected by M. Botteri, mentioned in Sumichrast 1869.  TBL for the whole State in winter.  O, Co.


Family Sturnidae – introduced


537.   Sturnus vulgaris  Linnaeus 1758.  European Starling.  Estornino Europeo.  Only 1 valid record for the State:  the specimen (nesting) taken by the Minnesota group[B32]  in Los Tuxtlas (Winker et al. 1992: 711); TBL, O, towns.


Family Vireonidae

Phillips 1991: 152 says this family is Incertae sedis


538.   Cyclarhis gujanensis flaviventris Lafresnaye 1842.  Rufous-browed Peppershrike.  Vireón Cejirrufo.  R, u – fc. SL to 1800 m.  HF and edge, RF and edge, S, O.  Chiefly in lowlands.  C & SE Veracruz.

a.       Cyclarhis g. septentrionalis Phillips 1991.

This ssp. is in in NW Veracruz.

539.   Vireolanius pulchellus ramosi Phillips 1991.  Green Shrike-Vireo.  Vireón Esmeralda.  R, fc – u. SL to 1800 m. South Veracruz, from Presidio S.E.  HF and edge, RF and edge.

540.   Vireolanius melitophrys crossini Phillips 1991.  Chestnut-sided Shrike-Vireo.  Vireón Pechicastaño.  R, fc – u – 1200 – 3500 m. in the western mountains.  POF, oak woodland, pine forest, upper HF (CF).

541.   Hylophilus decurtatus brevipennis  (Giraud) 1852.  Lesser Greenlet.  Verdillo Cabecigris.  R. fc – c – 500 to 1500 m. in the western foothills South to Cordoba and Presidio.  HF, S.

a.       H. d. dickermani  Parkes 1991.  This subspecies is known from Los Tuxtlas and Uxpanapa regions.  R. u – fc. S, RF.

542.   H. o. ochraceiceps  Sclater 1859.  Tawny-crowned Greenlet.  Verdillo Corona-leonada.  R, u. – SL to 1200 m. recorded from Presidio S.E. to Los Tuxtlas and Uxpanapa regions.  HF, RF, S.

543.   Vireo b. brevipennis  (Sclater) 1857.  Slaty Vireo.  Vireo Pizarra.  R, u. 1200 to 2500 (?) m. only in western mountains & foothills – near Jalapa, Naolinco, Orizaba.  POF edge, O, S edge (oak woodland).

544.   V. g. griseus  (Boddaert) 1783.  White-eyed Vireo.  Vireo Ojiblanco.  This form and following form are NM, fc – c. – late Sept. – early May (to mid-May in Los Tuxtlas).  The form perquisitor is apparently resident in central to North Veracruz (Type locality – Papantla, farthest south specimen is fom near Misantla).  This form has not been taken amid the 215 examined by Minn., which probably means it is not migratory (pers. comm. to WJS from Kevin Winker).

a.       V. g. micrus  Nelson 1899.  NM  Winters to SE.

b.      V. g. perquisitor  Nelson 1900.  R  C. Veracruz

545.   V. pallens cf. salvini  VanRossem 1934.  Mangrove Vireo.  Vireo Manglero.  SR – u in mangroves of Laguna de Sontecomapan in Los Tuxtlas – early April to end August.  WJS has over 50 sightings of this bird in the lagoon, but the presence of this species must be verified by specimens.  The bird he has seen is close to Phillips (1991:  178) description of the single specimen known from Tabasco:  bill is dusky, mandible mostly gray.  Its song is like the song described in Howell and Webb 1995: 615 and the scolding “chi-chi-chi” is similar.

546.   V. huttoni mexicanus  Ridgway 1903.  Hutton's Vireo.  Vireo Reyezuelo.  R, fc in the western mountains, 1200 – 3000 m.  POF, pine forest, S, incl. oak woodland.

547.   V. flavifrons  Vieillot 1808.  Yellow-throated Vireo.  Vireo Gorjiamarillo.  NM, u to fc.  Transient in northern half of the State = Aug. – Oct. & April; winters in southern half – Aug. – late April.

548.   V. s. solitarius  (Wilson) 1810.  Blue-headed Vireo.  Vireo Cabeciazul.  NM, fc – c. T. Sept. to April.  SL to 2500 m.  WS in transit.  Wintering rarely in mountains of Los Tuxtlas, WJS & SNG Howell, pers. comm.  RF and edge.

549.   V. plumbeus gravis  Phillips 1991.  Plumbeous Vireo.  Vireo Plomizo.  R, u to fc. in the western mountains, 1500 – 3000 m.  POF, down-slope in winter oak woodland, S.  Vagran (1 record – Phillips 1991: 193) to Los Tuxtlas.

550.   V. bellii bellii  Audubon 1844.  Bell's Vireo.  Vireo de Bell.  T, fc – c. WS on passage, generally seen in lowlands Sept. – early Oct., April – mid-May.  Winters on Pacific coast of Mexico from North Sinaloa S. & E. to El Salvador.  No wintering records in Veracruz State, both ssp.

a.       V. b. medius  Oberholser 1903.  T

551.   Vireo olivaceus  (Linnaeus) 1758” A.O.U.  Red-eyed Vireo.  Vireo Ojirrojo.  T., fc – c, WS on passage:  mid- Aug. to early Nov. and late March to 27 May.  Both ssp. have been specimen-recorded in Veracruz State.  SL to (rarely) 1500 m.  HF & edge, RF and edge, S.  See Phillips 1991: 203-206 for an elucidation of the tangled Taxonomic history of the species.  We follow Phillips (op. cit.) in using the name Vireosylva v. virescens  Vieillot “1807” = 1808.

a.       V. virescens caniviridis  (Burleigh) 1960.  Both ssp. have been recorded as T in Veracruz State.

552.   V. f. flavoviridis  Cassin 1851.  Yellow-green Vireo.  Vireo Amarillo-Verdoso.  SR, fc – c; SL to 1500 m, but mainly on coastal plain 21 March to 4 Sept. in Los Tuxtlas (Minn).  Arrival & departure dates for other areas in the State are needed.  HF & RF, edges, S edge, O with shrubs & scattered trees.

553.   Vireosylva philadelphica  Cassin 1851.  Philadelphia Vireo.  Vireo Filadelfia.  T. u – fc in northern & central Veracruz:  Sept. – Oct. and April to mid-May SL – 2000 m.  WS on passage.  From Tuxtlas S.E. is NM, u.  RF and edge, S.

554.   Vireosylva s. swainsonii  (Baird) 1858.  Swainson’s Vireo.  Vireo de Swainson.  NM, fc? u? winterer from Los Tuxtlas SE to the Uxpanapa region (Aug. – May); T in central & northern Veracruz (Aug. – Oct. and April to 12 May).  S, O, with scattered trees.  WJS follows Phillips (1991:  212 – 213) in considering this form a full species.

a.       V. s. brewsteri  Ridgway 1903.  V.  Wind-blown in the Tuxtlas region from the south coast of the Isthmus.  Two records by ARP, and a specimen.

555.   Vireosylva amauronota cf. strenva  (Nelson) 1900, nec leucophrys AOU.  Mexican Brown-capped Vireo.  Vireo Gorri-pardo.  R, u to r. in the western mountains – 1200 – 2000 m.  Oak woodland and upper HF.  A disjunct SR population in Los Tuxtlas – 2 April to 28 August (all WJS sights), apparently bred in evergreen-oak – sweet gum CF on Santa Marta.  Current status unknown.  Voucher specimens are urgently needed to verify its presence in the Tuxtla mountains.


Family Peucedramidae


556.   Peucedramus taeniatus jaliscensis  Miller and Griscom 1925.  Olive Warbler.  Chipe Ocotero.  R, fc – c. in the western mountains, in C-W Veracruz.  1500 – 3000 m.  Pine forest & POF, in arid areas.


Family Parulidae


557.   Protonotaria citrea  (Boddaert) 1783.  Prothonotary Warbler.  Chipe Protonotario.  T, fc – c:  late July to mid-Oct., and March & April, to 26 April.  WS on passage:  SL – 1500 m; rare winterer in mangroves & swamp forest of the Laguna de Sontecomapan (WJS – 15 winter sightings).  Mainly on the coastal plain in migration?

558.   Vermivora pinus  (Linnaeus) 1766.  Blue-winged Warbler.  Chipe Aliazul.  T, u to fc through northern to S. central Veracruz:  Sept. – Oct. and March – April.  NM, u – fc. from about latitude of Cordoba S.E. in Los Tuxtlas.  The wintering dates are 13 Sept. to 11 May, but transient flocks only after late April (WJS).  HF, RF and edges, S.

559.   V. chrysoptera  (Linnaeus) 1766.  Golden-winged Warbler.  Chipe Alidorado.  T, u to fc. throughout lowlands of the State – SL to 1800 m. (rarely), mostly on coastal plain:  Sept. – 28 Oct. & April – 12 May.  In Tuxtlas is a rare winter resident:  Nov. – early April.  HF & edge, S and edge, RF and edge.

560.   V. peregrina  (Wilson) 1811.  Tennessee Warbler.  Chipe Peregrino.  T. fc – c through northern half of the State, and NM fc – c in the southern half.  SL to 2500 m., mostly above 100 m, but also common on the coastal plain.  Transient periods:  mid-Sept. to early Nov. and April – May (to 31, May Minn.). Wintering birds seen from late Nov. to late March.  HF & edge, RF and edge, S and edge, often in O with hedgerow trees.

561.   V. c. celata  (Say) 1823.  Orange-Crowned Warbler.  Chipe Corona-naranja.  NM, fc – c, SL to 3000 m. Aug. – 15 May (WJS in Los Tuxtlas).  RF and edge, HF and edge, O, S and edge.

a.       V. c orestera  Oberholser 1905.  This subspecies has also been recorded in the State from Jalapa to the western mountains.  The form is apparently less common in the State than the preceding eastern subspecies?  SL to 2500 m. for both races.

562.   V. r. ruficapilla  (Wilson) 1811.  Nashville Warbler.  Chipe de Nashville.  NM, fc to c. SL to 3000 m. late Aug. – 10 May.  WS on passage, HF and edge, RF and edge, oak woodland, S including swamp forest, and open areas with hedgerow trees.  Both subspecies have been reported from the State.

a.       V. r. ridgwayi  Van Rossem 1929.  NM, u?  More specimens needed to determine status in the State.

563.   V. superciliosa mexicana  (Bonaparte) 1850.  Crescent-chested Warbler.  Chipe Cejiblanco.  R, fc – c. in the western mountains – 1500 to 3000 m.  POF, oak forest, upper HF.  More field studies are needed to verify WJS’ observations of altitudinal migration in winter to lower levels.

564.   V. luciae  (Cooper) 1861.  Lucy's Warbler.  Chipe de Lucy.  V.  WJS had 2 sightings on 23 March, 1962 of this species at points 2 & 4 kms southwest of Suchilapa, in Veracruz.  These were undoubtedly vagrants blown north on a violent “surada” across the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, where the species winters southeast to near La Ventosa, on the coastal plain of  eastern Oaxaca (WJS & PH) sights, Jan. – April, 1962.

565.   Parula americana  (Linnaeus) 1758.  Northern Parula Warbler. Parula Norteña.  NM, fc – c, SL to 1000 m. late Aug. – 6 May.  HF and edge, RF and edge, S including mangroves, O including hedgerow trees.

566.   Parula pitiayumi nigrilora  Coues 1878.  Tropical Parula.  Parula Tropical.  R, fc – SL to 1800 m. northern Veracruz south through foothills to C. Veracruz.

567.   P. p. inornata  Baird 1864.  SR, Los Tuxtlas and Uxpanapa regions, bulk of population withdrawing in September, but as late as October.  Very rare in winter (this contra Howell & Webb 1995: 633).  Less than 10 winter sightings over 33 years.

a.       Dendroica petechia aestiva  (Gmelin) 1789.  Yellow Warbler.  Chipe Amarillo.  NM, c – a.  Aug. – end May.  SL to 2000 m., most abundant below 1000 m.  Five migratory subspecies have been recorded in the State in winter.  WS in transit, wintering habitats include HF and edge, RF and edge, S, O.

b.      D. p. bryanti  Ridgway 1873.  This SR (March – Sept.) race breeds in mangroves & swamp forest in all coastal lagoons, and inland to near Tlacotalpan in the Papaloapan Delta (Dickerman, et al. 1972).

568.   D. pensylvanica  (Linnaeus) 1766.  Chestnut-sided Warbler.  Chipe Flanquicastaño.  T, fc – c in northern 2/3rds of the State:  Sept. – Oct., and April & May.  In Tuxtlas and Uxpanapa regions = NM, fc Sept. to May.  HF and edge, RF and edge, S.

569.   D. coronata coronata  (Linnaeus) 1766.  Eastern Yellow-rumped Warbler.  Chipe Rabadilla-amarilla.  NM, fc – c. SLevel to 1500 m., most common below 1000 m. Oct. to mid-May.  HF edge, RF edge, S edge, O, includes hedgerow trees.

a.       D. c. audubonii  (Townsend) 1837.  NM

b.      D. c. memorabilis  Oberholser 1921.  NM

a & b – Western Yellow-rumped (or Audubon’s) Warbler.  Chipe Rabadilla-amarilla Occidental.  NM, fc. western mountains.  1500 – 3000 m.  ?V in Tuxtla mountains – 4 specimen records (Wetmore 1943:315), plus 8 sight records, WJS, SH & SW, and ARP.  Most probably wind-blown vagrants from the mid-Isthmus mountains by violent “suradas.”

570.   D. magnolia  (Wilson) 1811.  Magnolia Warbler.  Chipe de Magnolia.  NM, fc – c. SL to 1500 m. 8 Sept. – 22 May (WJS).  HF and edge, RF and edge, S and edge.


The following four species of Dendroica Warblers have identical wintering grounds on the Caribbean side of the Yucatán Peninsula (Quintana Roo), Belize, and Honduras.  All also have small wintering populations in Los Tuxtlas.  All these species are trans-Gulf migrants to the Yucatan Peninsula on strong winds from the North.  WJS theorizes that on several occasions during the fall flights, the winds shift, from N. to NW, thus these flights land on the Tuxtla coasts.  Many of these birds over-winter here.  WJS (manuscript) has many sightings, and the first valid records for Veracruz were published by Andrle 1966: 182 = D. tigrina, and the other 3 were reported by Winker et al. 1992: 713.

571.   D. tigrina  (Gmelin) 1789.  Cape May Warbler.  NM, u. Sept. to early May.  Often seen inland to Catemaco & San Andrés Tuxtla. Open areas with trees and shrubs, often in hedgerow trees.  SL to 400 m. mostly on the coastal slope.

572.   D. caerulescens  (Gmelin) 1789.  Black-throated Blue Warbler.  Chipe Azuloso.  NM, r(?) often not seen due to dense disturbed rain forest interior which it favors in winter here in Los Tuxtlas – Winker et al. 1992: 713 reported the species in disturbed RF and second growth, usually thick, with much understory.  They collected 2 specimens in fall (21 Oct. & 7 Nov.), and saw 2 others in fall (17 and 29 Nov.) and 2 others on 21 & 25 March.  WJS had 11 sight records in winter, from 14 Dec., 1984 to 3 March 1993.  Latest sightings in spring were 8 April,; records include 2 dead birds at 2 lighthouses on the coast 16 & 18 Oct., plus observations of 2 ♂♂ & 1 ♀, adults, on the sand dunes at La Barra at dawn and 2 more adult ♂♂ seen at Montepío in disturbed rain forest edge on the same afternoon (Oct. 1997).

573.   D. discolor  (Vieillot) 1808.  Prairie Warbler.  Chipe Pradeño.  NM, r – u. SL to 500 m. (at Dos Amates).  Seen often on the coastal plain (N. of the mountains) in Los Tuxtlas.  Winker et al. 1992: 713 recorded it for the first time from the State of Veracruz, from the coastal plain of Los Tuxtlas, near Playa Escondida: 4 specimens: 30 Oct., 1 and 15 Jan., and 12 Feb.  WJS had fall, winter, and spring sightings in the same coastal area (La Palma & road to La Barra).  The arrival date for WJS sightings was 15 October, 1986 and the last bird seen by him in this area was on 20 April, 1984.  Open areas, with shrubs and often in hedgerow trees.

574.    D. palmarum  (Gmelin) 1789.  Palm Warbler.  Palm Warbler.  Chipe Playero.  NM, u to r. SL to over 500 m. 17 October (WJS) to 26 April.  See Winker et al. for their 3 specimens (2 on 23 Nove, and 1 on 7 Jan.) and their winter sightings:  9 & 10 Feb. & Jan. – March near Bastonal.  WJS had winter sightings (9) and SH had a Jan. sighting in pasture at Arroyo Agrio on Lake Catemaco.  They apparently feed in open pasture-land and roost at night in forest & second growth.

Much more observational work is needed on these four species, especially to confirm WJS’ hypothesis of migrant species which are blown off-course by north winds and which winter here in low numbers.

575.   D. nigrescens  (Townsend) 1837.  Black-throated Gray Warbler.  Chipe Negrigris.  NM, u – fc. 1500 – 3000 m. in western mountains.  Pine forest, POF, oak woodland.  V. in Los Tuxtlas – 1 record (ARP, published in Andrle 1966: 182).  Wind-blown vagrant from the Pacific coastal mountains.

576.   D. townsendi (Townsend) 1837.  Townsend's Warbler.  Chipe de Townsend.  NM, u – fc. 1500 – 3000 m. in the western mountains.  High conifers & POF.  V in Los Tuxtlas (SH & SW personal comm., from field notes 1990 above Bastonal.)  Windblown vagrants from the Pacific coastal mountains.

577.   D. virens  Gmelin (1789).  Black-throated Green Warbler.  Chipe Dorsiverde.  NM, fc – c. from the coastal plain to pine-oak forest at 2000 m. in the western mountains.  WS in winter (contra Keast, in Keast & Morton, editors, Migrant Birds in the Neotropics:  117, Symposia Nat. Zool. Park, Smithsonian Inst.).  Quite common in lowlands of Tuxtla and Uxpanapa region (MAR, WJS, SH, and Pronatura).

578.   D. chrysoparia  Sclater and Salvin 1860.  Golden-Cheeked Warbler.  Chipe Caridorado.  T, u. July – end Sept. and February to early April.  1200 – 3000 m. WS in western mountains.  No lowland records (?).  V. in Los Tuxtlas (WJS, a sighting of 3 ♂♂ in disturbed RF at Nanciyaga on 28 Feb., 1997) at about 340 m. above SL.  Most probably wind-blown vagrants blown north by trans-Isthmus “surada” while in migratory east to west flight across the Isthmus.

579.   D. occidentalis  (Townsend) 1837.  Hermit Warbler.  Chipe Cabeciamarilla.  NM – fc. 500 – 3000 m. in the western mountains late Aug. – May.  Pine forest, POF, and oak woodland.  Altitudinal migrant in winter.  V in Los Tuxtlas 7000 – 1000 m. Oct. & Dec 1962.  (Andrle 1966: 182, reporting his 2 sightings and ARP’s 2 specimens collected in Dec.; and WJS sightings:  2 ♂♂ seen at 750 m. below Bastonal on 8 March, 1993 – wind-blown vagrants.)

580.   D. dominica albilora  Ridgway 1873.  Yellow-Throated Warbler.  Chipe Gorjiamarillo.  NM, fc to c, SL to 1500 m., mainly lower, especially on coastal plain.  Palm & palmetto scrub, S, O with hedgerows.  Aug. – 12 May (WJS).

581.   D. graciae cf. decora  Ridgway 1873.  Grace's Warbler.  Chipe de Grace.  R? 1 record from Mt. Orizaba (MLZ).  V. in Los Tuxtlas, 4 sight records (WJS: 22 April 1994, near Ocotal Chico; 26 April 1992, and 5 May 1995: both above the village of Santa Marta, and 4 April 1986 below Bastonal in evergreen oak – sweet gum forest now destroyed).  WJS thinks these birds were all wind-blown vagrants from the pine ridges northeast of Matías Romero, Oaxaca in violent “surada” winds.

582.   D. fusca  (Muller) 1766.  Blackburnian Warbler.  Chipe Gorjinaranja.  T, fc – c. late Aug. – Nov. and April – May.  SL to 2000 m.  Oak forest, HF and edge, RF and edge, S and edge, also O with scattered trees.  Two winter records = Dec. 1912, near Jalapa, specimen collected by Mann (see Loetscher, 1955: 41); a bird seen well at 10 m. by WJS and Dr. George Wallace on 2 Jan 1977 on the waterfront at Catemaco.)

583.   D. pinus  (Wilson) 1811.  Pine Warbler.  Chipe Pinero.  V. 1 record by WJS on the beach at La Barra de Sontecomapan in Los Tuxtlas, in dune scrub, on 26 Sept. 1986.  It was seen well, at ranges as close as 1 m, from 6:45 to 7:25 AM (Central Standard Time).  WJS thinks this was another case of “migratory excitement.”  See Rüdeback, 1951, cited in Van Tyne and Borger, 1959: 190 and the account of Junco hyemalis (Infra).

584.   D. castanea  (Wilson) 1810. Bay-breasted Warbler.  Chipe Pechicastaño.  T, fc – u, late Sept. – early Nov., and April to 24 May.  SL to 1000 m.  WS on passage and in coastal scrub & thorn forest, HF, RF, S.  No winter records.

585.   D. cerulea  (Wilson) 1810.  Cerulean Warbler.  Chipe Cerúleo. T, u – r SL to 750 m. Sept. to mid-Oct., and 12 April to 6 May in Los Tuxtlas = Winker et al. 1992: 713 and WJS ms.  Some birds arrive on the Tuxtla coast in fall:  dead birds found at 2 lighthouses (WJS).

586.   Mniotilta varia  (Linnaeus) 1766.  Black-and-white Warbler.  Chipe Trepador.  NM, fc to c. SL to 2500 m. Aug. – 15 May.  WS, but mainly in HF and edge, RF and edge, S, O, with hedgerows, Co (often in palm trees) and H.

587.   Setophaga ruticilla  (Linnaeus) 1758.  American Redstart.  Pavito Migratorio.  NM, fc – c. SL to 1500 m, to over 2000 m on passage.  Aug. – end May.  POF, oak woodland, HF and edge, RF and edge, S, O with scattered trees and hedgerows.

588.   Wilsonia canadensis  (Linnaeus) 1758.  Canada Warbler.  Chipe Collarejo o Canadense.  T, fc – c. SL to 2500 m.  Late Aug. – 15 Oct., and mid-April to 26 May (in Los Tuxtlas).  HF and edge, RF and edge, S, to oak woodland & POF.  No winter records.  Winters in Colombia to Brazil.

589.   Wilsonia citrina  (Boddaert) 1783.  Hooded Warbler.  Chipe Encapuchado.  NM, fc – c. SL to 1500 m.  T. in about northern half of the State:  oak woodland, HF and edge, S and edge, Aug. – 12 Oct. (?) and 16 March to 15 May, RF and edge (in Los Tuxtlas).  Wintering birds, only in HF (?) and edge, and RF and edge are seen from late October – early May.

590.   Wilsonia pusilla pusilla  (Wilson) 1811.  Wilson's Warbler.  Chipe de Wilson.  NM, c – a. SL to 3000 m. late Aug. – May.  Three subspecies have been specimen-recorded from the State.  WS on passage, wintering birds in HF and edge, RF and edge.  S, and O, with trees & shrubs.  It is the most common wintering warbler throughout the State.

The following subspecies have been recorded in the State in winter:

a.       W. p. chryseola  Ridway 1902.  NM

b.      W. p. pileolata  (Pallas) 1811.  NM

591.   Oporornis formosus  (Wilson) 1811.  Kentucky Warbler.  Chipe de Kentucky.  NM, fc. SL to 1500 m. 9 Aug. – 15 May, Sept. to April, in southern half of the State, T only in northern half, Aug. to October and end-March – early May.  HF, RF, S (including swamp forest).

592.   O. philadelphia  (Wilson) 1810.  Mourning Warbler.  Chipe Lloròn.  T, fc – c. SL to 2000 m, mostly on coastal plain.  WS on passage, but usually seen in HF and edge, RF and edge, S and edge.  Sept. – mid-October, and mid-April to end May.  Winters in Ecuador and Venezuéla.

593.   O. tolmiei  (Townsend) 1837.  MacGillivray's Warbler.  Chipe de Tolmie.  NM, fc – c, 1800 – 2500 in the western mountains  Late Aug. to early May.  POF, pine forest, oak woodland.  V to Tuxtla mountains = Andrle 1966: 183; Winker, et al. 1992: 714 (5 specimens from 8 – 13 May), and WJS observations: 10 Oct., 16 Oct., 28 Nov., 22 Dec., 2 Feb., and 12 March, all in different years:  his latest sighting 3 April = 6 – 7 birds below Bastonal, with SH.  All these records thought by WJS to involve birds blown north across the Isthmus by violent “suradas.”  Phillips, in Andrle (op. cit.) identified 2 subspecies in his 1962 specimens – O. t. tolmiei & O. t. intermedia.

594.   Ergaticus ruber  (Swainson) 1827.  Red Warbler.  Chipe Rojo.  R, fc. 1800 – 3000 m. only in western mountains, comes down-slope in winter.  Fir forest, pine forest, POF, to oak woodland in cold winters.

595.   Myioborus pictus  (Swainson) 1829.  Painted Redstart.  Pavito Aliblanco.  R, fc – c. 1000 to 3000 m. only in western mountains.  POF, and oak woodland, down to HF in winter.

596.   M. miniatus  (Swainson) 1827.  Slate-throated Redstart.  Chipe Gorjigris.  R, fc. 1000 – 3000 m. in the western mountains.  In pine forest, POF, down to oak woodland & montane HF often in winter.  An isolated population in the Tuxtla mountains now r and endangered, as most of its CF and upper montane RF has been destroyed during the past 30 years.  It represents a distinct endemic subspecies.

a.       M. m. molochinus  Wetmore 1942.  R in Los Tuxtlas.  In RF, pine forests, 500 – 1300 m. in summer.  Also altitudinal migrant in winter.

597.   Cardellina rubrifrons  (Giraud) 1841.  Red-faced Warbler.  Chipe Carirrojo.  NM, fc – u, 1500 – 3000 m. Sept. – April.  Altitudinal migrant, downslope in winter.  Pine forest, POF, oak woodland.  Only in the western mountains:  slopes of Mt. Orizaba south to the Cofre de Perote and Los Vigas areas.

598.   Limnothlypis swainsonii  (Audubon) 1834.  Swainson's Warbler.  Chipe de Swainson.  NM, u – fc, SL to 340 m. (in Los Tuxtlas).  Although Howell and Webb 1995: 646 list it as only transient through Veracruz State, Kevin Winker (pers. comm..) and WJS had many wintering records in the Tuxtla region and deem it an uncommon but regular winter resident.  We found it only on the coast in Los Tuxtlas, in winter, in RF and edge, S including mangroves and swamp forest.  More field studies of this species in other areas of the State are needed.

599.   Helmitheros vermivorus  (Gmelin) 1789.  Worm-eating Warbler.  Chipe Gusanero.  NM, fc – c, SL to 1500 m.  Only transient through about the northern half of the State, Aug. – Oct. and April – early May.  It winters (Sept. to late March) in the southern half.  The spring migration returns through April to 12 May.  HF, RF, S.

600.   Basileuterus b. bellii  (Giraud) 1841.  Golden-browed Warbler.  Chipe Cejidorado.  R, fc – c in the western mountains:  1200 – 3000 m.  It is another altitudinal migrant, coming down-slope in winter.  Pine forest, POF, oak woodland, and in montane HF in winter.  The isolated population in the Tuxtla mountains is now considerably diminished due to habitat loss.  The species is now u to r there, in CF and high montane RF.  WJS considers it endangered in the Tuxtlas.

601.   B. c. culicivorus  (Deppe) 1830.  Golden Crowned Warbler.  Chipe Corona-dorado.  R, fc –c. near SL to 1500 m.  This subspecies occurs in central & SE Veracruz.  HF, RF, often at forest edge.

a.       B. c. brasheri  (Giraud) 1841.  This subspecies has been recorded from northern Veracruz.

602.   B. r. rufifrons  (Swainson) 1837.  Rufous-Capped Warbler.  Chipe Gorrirrufo.  R, fc – c. near SLevel to 2500 m. from central Veracruz (Presidio) southeast.  Contra Binford 1986: 237, WJS does not recognize true salvini[ME33]  as occurring in the State.  The specimens from southern Veracruz are a variable series of intergrades between B. r. rufifrons and B. r. salvini of Tabasco, northern Chiapas, and Guatemala; this was pointed out to WJS by Allan R. Phillips (pers. comm..)  S, RF edge, O.

603.   Euthlypis lachrymosa  (Bonaparte) 1851.  Fan-tailed Warbler.  Chipe Roquero.  R, fc – u. SL (in winter in Los Tuxtlas – RCE, photo, netted) to 1600 m. in western Veracruz, but also an altitudinal migrant there, down to below 900 (WJS).  In Los Tuxtlas in spring to 1200 m.  We still have no breeding records in Los Tuxtlas, but courtship seen (KW, WJS).  HF, RF, and edge, S and edge.  More field work is needed to confirm breeding in Los Tuxtlas.  (See Winker et al. 1992:  714.)

604.   Seiurus a. aurocapillus  (Linnaeus) 1758.  Ovenbird.  Chipe-suelero Coronado.  NM, fc – c. SL to 2000 m. Sept. – 27 May.  HF and edge, RF and edge, S including swamp forest.

605.   S. n. noveboracensis  (Gmelin) 1789.  Northern Waterthrush.  Chipe Suelero Charquero.  Two subspecies have been recorded from the State, the nominate race and the following race.  Both are NM fc – c, from SL to 2500 m. in the State.  S = mangroves and swamp forest, H (lake shores, lagoon edges, swamps with trees), and HF & RF interiors near water, late Aug. to May.

a.       S. n. notabilis  Ridgway 1880.

606.   S. motacilla  (Vieillot) 1808.  Louisiana Waterthrush.  Chipe-suelero Arroyero.  NM, fc. – c. SL to 3000 m, mostly wintering in the lowlands.  WS on passage, then in S (swamp forest and mongroves), H (marshlands with running water), HF and RF interiors along brooks & rivers.  July to 19 May.

607.   Geothlypis t. trichas  (Linnaeus) 1766.  Common Yellowthroat.  Mascarita Comun.  Four subspecies have been specimen-recorded from the State of Veracruz = 3 migratory and one R. in the mountains of western Veracruz.  The migratory subspecies (fc – c) occur throughout the State on passage and in winter, SL to 2500 m. mid-Aug. to mid-May.  All have similar habitat preferences:  O, H, Co (marshes).  These subspecies are G. t. trichas (Linnaeus) 1766; G. t. occidentalis Brewster 1883; and G. t. typhicola Burleigh 1934.  The R race is G. t. melanops, is u, and is confined to the few FW marshes of the mountains above Jalapa = Las Vigas, Perote, Naolinco.  The race breeds in central Mexico and occurs across the central volcanic provice to Veracruz.

a.       G. t. melanops  Baird 1865.  R

b.      G. t. typhicola  Burleigh 1934.  NM

608.   Geothlypis flavovelata  Ridgway 1896.  Altamira Yellowthroat.  Mascarita de Altamira. R, fc – c, SL to 500 m. only in northern Veracruz.  O, H (esp. marshes).

609.   Geothlypis nelsoni  Richmond 1900.  Hooded Yellowthroat.  Mascarita Matorralera.  R, fc to common, locally.  In the western mountains, from Naolinco, Perote, Las Vigas, to Jico.  1400 – 300 m.  Habitat:  thickets, scrub; not a marsh species, often in S and edge.

610.   Geothlypis poliocephela  Ridgway 1881.  Gray-crowned Yellowthroat.  Mascarita Piquigruesa.  R, fc – c. SL to 1500 m.  O, S edge.  Not a marsh bird.

611.   Icteria v. virens  Linnaeus 1758. Yellow-breasted Chat.  Gritón Pechiamarillo.  NM, fc – c. SL to 1500 m. mid-Aug. to late May.  In winter is conspicuous, in O, S edge and thickets.

a.  I. v. auricollis (Deppe) 1830.  Both subspecies have been specimen-recorded from the State.

612.   Granatellus s. sallaei  (Bonaparte) 1856.  Gray-throated Chat.  Granatelo Gorjigris.  R, u – southern Veracruz only, from Presidio (still present?) S.E. to Uxpanapa region.  It has always been r. in Los Tuxtlas.  S and edge.



Family Thraupidae


Subfamily Coerebinae


613.   Coereba flaveola mexicana  (Sclater) 1856.  Bananaquit.  Platanero. SR, u to fc. mid-March to end September.  SL to 1000 m. in Los Tuxtlas.  Only in southern Veracruz (Presidio and Motzorongo) southeast to the Uxpanapa region.  WJS had only 11 winter sightings (Nov. – Feb.) in his 33 years of observation in the Tuxtla region.  HF and edge, RF and edge.



Subfamily Dacninae


614.   Cyanerpes cyaneus carneipes  (Sclater) 1859  Red-Legged Honeycreeper.  Mielero Patirrojo.  SR, fc – c. SL to 1500 m. mid-March to early Sept.  Rare winter resident.  HF and edge, RF and edge, S and edge, often seen in O at flowers. (Diurnal migrant.)

615.   Chlorophanes spiza guatemalensis  Sclater 1861.  Green Honeycreeper.  Mielero Verde.  R, u. to r.  Only in Uxpanapa region (Pronatura sights) and 4 kms. SW of Suchilapa in April, 1962 (WJS & field party sights).  RF and edge.


Subfamily Diglossinae


616.   Diglossa b. baritula  Wagler 1832.  Cinnamon-bellied Flowerpiercer.  Picaflor Vientro-canelo.  R, fc – c. 1200 – 3000 m. only in the western mountains.  POF down to HF, in clearings with flowers.


Subfamily Euphoniinae


617.   Euphonia affinis olmecorum  Dickerman 1981.  Scrub Euphonia.  Eufonia Gorjinegro.  R, fc – c. SL to 1500 m. most of the State, except for NE corner.  HF edge, S, RF edge, O with hedgerows & scattered trees.

618.   E. hirundinacea caribbaea  Phillips 1966.  Yellow-throated Euponia.  Eufonia Gorjiamarillo.  SR?, fc – c.  The subspecies E. hirundinacea caribaea Phillips 1966 breeds here (late March to late August).  It apparently leaves the Tuxtla region and is replaced by more northern birds (subspecies E. h. suttoni:  Phillips 1966) during Sept. (Allan R. Phillips pers. comm, from specimens examined).  Our breeding birds appear to go south to winter on the Pacific coast (see Binford 1989:  241).  Much more field work (including collection of specimens) is needed to clarify this situation.

a.       E. h. suttoni  Phillips 1966.  R in northern Veracruz

619.   E. e. elegantissima  (Bonaparte) 1838.  Blue-hooded Euphonia.  Eufonia Capuch-azul.  R, fc – c. 500 – 3000 m.  Altitudinal migrant in winter, down-slope to lower elevations.  Oak woodlands, POF, HF, RF, CF (in Los Tuxtlas, where it is a disjunct population).  See map in Howell & Webb 1995:  667.

620.   E. gouldii loetscheri  Phillips 1966.  Olive-backed Euphonia.  Eufonia Olivácea.  R, fc SL to 1000 m., now u. in Los Tuxtlas.  Only in southern Veracruz, Motzorongo area to Uxpanapa region.  HF and edge, RF and edge.

621.   Chlorophonia o. occipitalis  (DuBus) 1847.  Blue-crowned Chlorophonia.  Clorofonia Coroniazul.  R, fc – c. 900 to 2500 m. in the western mountains.  Altitudinal migrant, coming down-slope to the lower elevations in winter.  In POF and oakwoodland in summer, down to HF and edge.  It is also R, u in the Tuxtla mountains and is also an altitudinal migrant there, specimens taken near Montepío near SL (Winker et al. 1992:  714).  In the Tuxtla mountains it breeds in CF & upper montane RF.


Subfamily Thraupinae


622.   Chlorospingus o. ophthalmicus  (DuBus) 1847.  Common Bush-Tanager.  Chinchinero Común.  R, fc – c.  In the western mountains:  1000 to 3000 m.  Altitudinal migrant, downslope to HF.  POF, oak woodland.  The isolated and endemic subspecies (C. o. wetmorei Lowery & Newman 1949) in the Tuxtla mountains is now u to r.  It breeds in cloud forest and upper montane RF from 1300 to 800 m, and comes down-slope in winter to about 150 m.  This race was overlooked in Howell & Webb 1995:  678, although he showed its disjunct population on the range maps, but attributed it to the subspecies postocularis, which does not occur in Veracrua.

a.       C. o. wetmorei  Lowery & Newman 1949.  Los Tuxtlas.  (See above.)

623.   Tangara l. larvata  (DuBus) 1846, nec. Thraupis A.O.U.  Golden-hooded Tanagers.  Tángara Capucha-dorada.  R, fc – r.  Recorded from Playa Vicente by Sclater 1859.  WJS & his field party saw a pair in an isolated tree at RF edge at 4 kms. SW of Suchilapa, Veracruz on 24 March, 1962 but we were unable to collect them. 

624.   Thraupis epicopus diaconus (Lesson) 1842.  Blue-gray Tanager.  Tángara Azuligris.  R, fc – c. most of the State except northern ¼.  SL to 1500 m.  S edge, HF edge, RF edge, but mostly in O with some trees.  Roosts and breeds in trees in Catemaco and other towns in southern Veracruz.

625.   T. abbas  Deppe 1830.  Yellow-winged Tanager.  Tángara Aliamarilla.  R, fc – c, SL to 1500 m. in the entire State except the high mountains  HF and edge, RF edge, S edge, O with scattered trees.

626.   Eucometis penicillata pallida  Berlepsch 1888.  Gray-headed Tanager.  Tangara Cabecigris.  SR, u to fc. late March to late Sept.  Very few winter records in Los Tuxtlas.  SL to 800 m.  RF, S.

627.   Ramphocelus p. passerinii  Bonaparte 1833.  Scarlet-rumped Tanager.  Tángara Terciopelo.  Now R, u, invading since 1985 (WJS) in the new pasturelands from the open areas in Tabasco and from the south.  SL to over 800 m.  RF edge, O, S edge.

628.   R. s. sanguinolentus  (Lesson) 1831.  Crimson-collared Tanager.  Tángara Cuellirroja.  R, fc, SL to 1300 m.  Now less common due to habitat loss.  RF edge, S including swamp forest.  Southeast Veracruz only.

629.   Spermagra l. leucoptera  (Trudeau) 1839.  White-winged Tanager.  Tángara Aliblanca.  R, fc. to u. 150 – 1800 m., mostly above 500 m.  In the western mountains ranges between 900 and 1800 m; the species is an altitudinal migrant, coming down to lower areas in winter.  In Los Tuxtlas the species comes down to almost SL in cold, wet “nortes.”

630.   Piranga r. rubra  (Linnaeus) 1758.  Summer Tanager.  Tángara Roja.  NM, fc – c. SL to 2500 m. late Aug. – 10 May.  HF, RF, S, but often seen in open areas with trees during transient periods – Sept. to late Oct., and 15 March to May.

631.   Piranga flava dextra  Bangs 1907.  Hepatic Tanager.  Tángara Encinera.  R, fc – c 900 m (at Fortin – WJS) to 3000 m in the western mountains.  Pine forest, POF, oak woodland.  V in Los Tuxtlas:  blown north from the pine ridges of the middle of the isthmus of Tehuantepec.  WJS had 6 sightings of this species below Bastonal and SH & SW saw a ♂ above Bastonal on 1 May 1990 (pers. comm. to WJS).

632.   Piranga olivacea  (Gmelin) 1789.  Scarlet Tanager.  Tangara Escarlata.  T, u.  This species is strictly a trans-Gulf migrant, arriving in Los Tuxtlas 30 Sept. with our last fall record on 27 Oct. (KW, pers. comm.).  WJS saw a total of 86 birds from 1976 to 1991.  All were on the coastal plain of the Tuxtla region.  See Howell and Webb, 1995:  674, and range map.

633.   P. bidentata sanguinolenta  (Swainson) 1827.  Flame-colored Tanager.  Tángara Dorsirrayada.  R, fc – c. in the western mountains.  900- 2800 m.  Altitudinal migrant, down to lower elevations in winter.  POF, oak woodland, and HF.

a.       P. b. bidentata  (Lafresnaye) 1839.  An immature ♂ specimen of this western race was caught by a “pajarero” above the village of Santa Marta on 25 or 26 April, 1995.  WJS had his ex-“pajerero” friend in La Victoria keep the bird alive for him.. The bird is now, at the time of writing, 7 years and 9 months old!  WJS has watched all the molts and is sure the bird is a representative of the Pacific slope subspecies.  When the bird dies, the specimen will be donated to the C.N.A. (the National Bird Collection) in the National Univ. of Mexico (UNAM).  This record is apparently another wind-blown vagrant blown north from the pine ridges N.E. of Matias Romero, Oaxaca.

634.   P. ludoviciana  (Wilson) 1811.  Western Tanager.  Tángara Occidental.  NM, fc – c. SL to 3000 m., WS on passage.  POF, oak woodland, HF, RF, S, O near forest edge.

635.   Habia rubica rubicoides  (Lafresnaye) 1844.  Red-crowned
Ant-Tanager.  Tángara-hormiguera Coronirroja.  R, fc – c, SL to 1200 m. HF, RF, S and second-growth.  Not in northeastern Veracruz

636.   H. fuscicauda salvini  (Berlepsch) 1883.  Red-throated Ant-Tanagers.  Tángara-hormiguerra Gorjirroja.  R, fc – c, SL to 1200 m.  HF and edge, RF and edge, S and edge, second-growth.

637.   Lanio aurantius  (Lafresnaye) 1846.  Black-throated Shrike-Tanager.  Tangara-lanio Gorjinegro.  R, fc – u. SL to 1200 m. southern Veracruz State, from the Presidio-Tezonapa region S.E. to the Uxpanapa region.  HF, RF.  Now less common in all Veracruz areas due to habitat loss.


Family Fringillidae

            (WJS prefers a return to all pre-1983 AOU classifications)


Subfamily Cardinalinae

nec AOU’s raising this group of species to family rank.


638.   Saltator a. atriceps  (Lesson) 1832.  Black-headed Saltator.  Saltador Cabecinegro.  R, fc – c, SL to 1800 m. in most of the State.  HF edge, O with trees, second-growth, S edge.

a.       S. a. suffuscus  Wetmore 1942.  Only in Los Tuxtlas & perhaps to Uxpanapa region (needs specimen from that area).  Endemic subspecies, immediately distinguished in the field by its brown throat.  R, fc.  RF edge, S edge, O.

639.   S. maximus gigantodes  Cabanis 1851.  Buff-throated Saltator.  Saltador Gorjileonado.  R, fc – c, SL to 1500 m. HF edge, RF edge, S edge, O.

640.   S. coerulescens grandis  (Deppe) 1830.  Grayish Saltator.  Saltador Grisáceo.  R, fc – c, SL to 1500 m.  HF edge, RF edge, S edge, and O.  Seen more in O than the 2 preceding species throughout the State.

641.   Rhodothraupis celaeno  (Deppe) 1830.  Crimson-collared Grosbeak.  Picogrueso Cuellirrojo.  R, fc to u, SL to 1200 m.  S, O, HF and edge, south to Papantla area.

642.   Caryothraustes p. poliocephala  (DuBus) 1847.  Black-faced Grosbeak.  Picogrueso Carinegro.  R, formerly fc – c, now uncommon due to habitat loss, SL to 1200 m.  HF and edge, RF and edge, only in southern Veracruz.

643.   Cardinalis cardinalis coccineus  Ridgway 1873.  Northern Cardinal.  Cardenal Norteño.  R, fc – c, SL to 2000 m. in entire State except high mountains.  S, HF and second growth, O, Co.

a.       C. c. littoralis  Nelson 1897.  This subspecies occurs on the north coast of the Tuxtla region (T.L. Coatzacoalcos) and perhaps S.E. to the Uxpanapa region.  (Specimens needed to determine the race found there).  Co scrub & dunes, O.  SL to perhaps 500 m.

644.   Cardinalis s. sinuatus  Bonaparte 1837.  Pyrrhuloxia.  V – sightings by Pronatura near plateau edge (El Limón & Perote).

645.   Pheucticus ludovicianus  (Linnaeus) 1766.  Rose-breasted Grosbeak.  Picogrueso Pechirrosado.  NM, fc – c, SL to 2500 m. in entire State except the northeastern corner and the highest mountains.  HF and edge, RF and edge, S and edge, H with trees, O with trees.  October – May.

646.   P. m. melanocephalus  (Swainson) 1827.  Black-Headed Grosbeak.  Picogrueso  Tigrillo.  R, u, on plateau edge below El Puerto del Aire above Acultzingo – 1 breeding record (MLZ).  NM, fc in western mountains – late Aug. – May.

647.   Sporophila cyanoides concreta  DuBus 1855.  Blue-black Grosbeak.  Picogrueso Azul.  Taxonomic note:  WJS can find no evidence (morphological, nest construction, egg-color, etc.) for maintaining the AOU-sponsored genus “Cyanocompsa.  The present species is obviously an overgrown Sporophila = forest-dwelling habit, nest construction (with use of spider silk to tie the nest into place) with 2 eggs mottled almost identically to most Sporophila eggs (which are always two – three and mottled) & song.  The other species (C. parellelina) has already been changed to Passerina by J. O’Neill and other ornithologists and rightly so WJS believes = nest an open cup as are all Passerina nests, eggs 3 – 4 and white or palest blue.  R, fc – to now u due to habitat loss in Los Tuxtlas.  HF and edge, RF and edge, dense S.  SL to 900 m.  Only in southern Veracruz from Presidio- Motzorongo region to Uxpanapa region, including Los Tuxtlas.

648.   S. m. morelleti  (Bonaparte) 1850.  White-collared (Morelett’s) Seedeater.  Semillero Collarejo.  R, c – a, SL to 2000 m, mainly below 1000 m.  O, with scattered trees, S edge and second-growth (“acahual”).

649.   S. aurita corvina  (Sclater) 1859.  Variable Seedeater.  Semillero Variable.  R, fc – u[p34] , SL to 1000 m.  Southern Veracruz – Playa Vicente to Uxpanapa region; the species invaded the Tuxtlas during the 1980’s and now is u, in all open & grass-grown habitats.  RF edge, second-growth, and O with trees and shrubs.

650.   Sporophila angolensis funerea  (Sclater) 1859, nec “Oryzoborus” AOU et auctorum – see Olson 1980.  Thick-billed Finch.  Semillero Piquigrueso.  R, u to fc, SL to 1000 m. southern Veracruz, from the Presidio-Motzoronga region SE to Los Tuxtlas and Uxpanapa regions.  HF and edge, RF and edge, also S (swamp forest and edge).

651.   Passerina caerulea euryncha  (Coues) 1874.  Blue Grosbeak.  Picogrueso Azul.  NM, fc – c, SL – 2000 m. Late Aug. – mid-May.  S, O – 2 subspecies have been specimen-recorded from the State – Passerina caerulea eurhyncha Coues 1874 and P. c. interfusa Dwight and Griscom 1927.

652.   P. amoena  (Say) 1828.  Lazuli Bunting.  Colorín Lazulita.  V – one specimen record from Orizaba in the 19th century (Botteri specimen).

653.   P. p. parellina  (Bonaparte) 1850.  Blue Bunting.  Colorín Azulinegro.  R, fc – c, SL to 1500 m. throughout State, but more common in the lowlands.  S and edge, O, with brush & some trees.

654.   P. cyanea  (Linnaeus) 1766.  Indigo Bunting.  Colorín Azul.  NM, fc – c, SL to 2500 m. mid-Sept. to late May.  O, S edge.  Winters throughout State, except in high mountains and N.E. corner, where it is transient – Sept. – Oct. and April. – May.

655.   P. v. versicolor  (Bonaparte) 1838.  Varied Bunting.  Colorín Morado.  NM, fc – c, SL to 1200 m. late Sept – April.  S and edge, thorn forest, O, H.

656.   P. ciris ciris  (Linnaeus) 1758.  Painted Bunting.  Colorín Sietecolores.  NM, fc – c, SL to 1500 m. Sept. – 8 May (WJS).  HF and edge, RF and edge, S and edge, O.

a.       P. ciris pallidior  Mearns 1911.  This western subspecies has also been recorded in the State.

657.   Sicalis luteola chrysops  (Sclater) 1861.  Grassland Yellow-Finch.  Zacatero Amarillo.  SR? fc – c. on coastal plain – Sept. – Mar., breeding in Orizaba valley April – Sept.  (WJS obs.)


Subfamily Fringillinae

nec Emberizinae AOU


658.   Volatinia jacarina splendens  (Vieillot) 1817.  Blue-black Grass Quit.  Semillero Brincador.  R, fc – c. SL to 1600 m. throughout the State except the high western mountains.  O, often in scrub & second growth, but usually in grassland.

659.   Tiaris olivacea pusilla  (Swainson) 1827.  Yellow-faced Grassquit.  Semillero Olivaceo.  R, c – SL – 1800 m. throughout lowlands of the State.  HF edge, RF edge, S edge, O and scrub, and especially in grasslands.

660.   Atlapetes p. pileatus  (Wagler) 1831.  Rufous-capped Brush-Finch.  Saltón Gorirrufo.  R, fc – c, 700 – 3000 m. only in the western mountains.  O in POF, oak woodland, and upper HF.

661.   Atlapetes b. brunneinucha  (Lafresnaye) 1839.  Chestnut-capped Brush-Finch.  Saltón Gorricastaño.  R, fc – c, in the western mountains south to the Cordoba-Orizaba region.  900 – 3000 m.  POF, S = oakwoodland, and HF, and second-growth.

a.       A. b. apertus  Wetmore 1942.  This isolated, endemic subspecies is only in Los Tuxtlas – 1200 – 400 m.  RF and second-growth.

662.   A. gutturalis albinucha  (Lafresnaye and D’Orbigny 1838.  White-naped Brush-Finch.  Saltón Nuquiblanco.  R, u. 900 – 2700 m. only in the western mountains.  Pine forest, oak woodland, montane HF.  Altitudinal migrant, down-slope in winter.

663.   Haplospiza rustica uniformis  Sclater & Salvin 1873.  Slaty Finch.  Fringilo Plomizo.  R? at least formerly recorded, in the 19th century, but its recent (1982) collection in Michoacán suggests more field studies are needed in our State.  WJS saw a ♀ bird in Jan. 1981, with Roland Wauer, below the Puerto del Aire, and above Acultzingo, which he was 90% sure was this species.  Upper HF, with open areas and some trees.

664.   Arremon aurantiirostris saturatus  Cherrie 1891.  Orange-billed Sparrow.  Rascador Piquinaranja.  R, u, 2 specimen records from Presidio & from 30 kms. SW of Tezonapa (in MLZ in Los Angeles) and sightings by WJS in the Tuxtla region, and at a point 4 kms SW of Suchilapa, constitute the only records for the State.

665.   Arremonops rufivirgatus crassirostris  (Ridgway) 1878.  Olive Sparrow.  Gorrión Oliváceo.  This subspecies occurs from Córdoba & Orizaba S.E. to Minatitlan, including the Tuxtla region.  TBL in the Uxpanapa region.

a.       A. r. ridgwayi  Sutton & Burleigh 1941.  This subspecies occurs in northern Veracruz south (SL to 1500 m.) to at least Tuxpan.  Both are R, fc – c.  Both in HF & RF edge, O with bushes & trees, S.

666.   Pipilo ocai  (Lawrence) 1865.  Collared Towhee.  Rascador Collarejo.  R, fc – c. 1500 to 3000 m. only in the western mountains, pine forest, POF, pine mixed with HF, oak woodland.

667.   Pipilo m. maculates  Swainson 1827.  Spotted Towhee.  Rascador Manchado.  R, fc – c. in central western mountains 1000 – 3000 m.  Pine forest, POF, oak woodland.  We restrict the Towhees of the northern erythrophthalmus group to wintering only in northern mainland Mexico.  The Baja forms are Northern Towhees (erythropthalmus group).  This follows Phillips (pers. comm.. & ms.) and the arrangement of maculatus races by Van Tyne, Sutton, Burleigh, and many other so-called “old-fashioned Alpha taxonomists.”  Thus there are 2 species of Red-sided Towhees involved in Mexico, brownish or greenish-backed (maculates) and dark grayish or black-backed (erythrophthalmus).  This is in accord with the most recent arrangement of these forms by the AOU (see Sibley 2000:  474).

668.   Pipilo fuscus toroi  Moore 1942.  Brown Towhee.  Rascador Pardo.  R, fc – c in central western mountains, at the plateau edge (2500 m.).  S – scrub & thickets, O, with bushes & occasional trees.

669.   Ammodramus sandwichensis savanna  (Wilson) 1811.  Savannah sparrow.  Gorrión Sabanero.  NM, fc – c transient, fc in winter in most of the State; u winter resident in Los Tuxtlas – late Sept. – early May.  O, grasslands, H – marshes, and S – swamp forest edge.

670.   A. savannarum pratensis  (Vieillot) 1817.  Grasshopper Sparrow.  Gorrión Chapulín.  Three subspecies are recorded in the State of Veracruz.  The first 2 are NM, fc to u, SL to 2500 m. WS on passage, but mostly on coastal lowlands in winter = O (grasslands, overgrown pastures).  Sept. to May.  The 3rd race is another apparent SR – March – end August.  This form is recognizable in the field:  it is very dark, much darker than the other two races.  Its habitat is similar = O, but WJS has seen it often in wet, swampy pastures.  WJS considers this a valid ssp., contra AOU.

a.       A. s. perpallidus  (Coves) 1872.  NM

b.      A. s. obscurus  Nelson 1897  SR – S.E. Veracruz.  We consider this a valid ssp, much darker throughout than bimaculatus; as always, fresh series are needed of both Mexican ssp.

671.   Pooecetes gramineus confinis  Baird 1858.  Vesper Sparrow.  Gorrión Coliblanco.  NM, u – only recorded from Zacualpilla (Mex. check-list, 1957:  369) Jalapa, and Orizaba (Loetscher 1995:  47).  Sept. – April near SL to 2000 m.  TBL on plateau edge in western mountains.  V in Tuxtla region = a flock of 30&, seen well at close range 20 – 60 m., identified by their all white outer tail rectrices, on 26 November 1986 near Angel R. Cabada (WJS).  He considers this occurence another species in his list of wind-blown vagrants from the Pacific coast, by a strong “surada.”

672.   Chondestes grammacus strigatus  Swainson 1827.  Lark Sparrow.  Gorrión Arlequin.  NM, u?  Near Haycocotla (Mar, WJS), Orizaba (Sumichrast, 1869), near Jalapa (Chapman 1898:  28, April) and in the western mountains & foothills.  V in Los Tuxtlas = 3 specimens were obtained by the Minn. group:  1 on 4 Oct. and 2 more on 1 & 5 April.  WJS had 8 winter records:  Nov. – late Feb. (in different years) and 4 late Spring sightings = 2 in April and 2 in the first week in May (different years) and all within 2-6 days after violent south winds.  WJS ranks this species as another windblown vagrant from the south side of the Isthmus.  Wetmore (1943:  333) first recorded the species in the Tuxtla region (2 spec. collected).

673.   Spizella passerina arizonae  Coues 1872.  Chipping Sparrow.  Gorrión Cejiblanco.  NM, fc – 1800 – 3000 m. in the western mountains, late Sept. – end April.  POF with grass in clearings, oak woodland, and S with thickets.

a.       S. p. mexicana  Nelson 1899.  This R sub-species (u) is often blown N. from the pine ridges of the middle Isthmus by violent “suradas” = 15 WJS sight records of singles to 4 – 5 birds each time.

674.   S. pallida  (Swainson) 1831.  Clay-colored Sparrow.  Gorrión Pálido.  V, r.  Most probably wind-blown vagrants from the south coast in Oaxaca, where WJS saw it often – 1960 – 1969.  WJS has subsequently had 19 observations of the species in his 33 years of studying the birds of the Tuxtla region, each one of 1 – 5 birds each time.  The Minn. group took a specimen on 17 Oct. and had 2 sightings of single birds on 7 and 11 December, 1974.  And a single specimen was taken by Cantrell at Tierra Colorada on 14 March, 1941.

675.   S. wortheni  Ridgway 1884.  Worthen's Sparrow.  Gorrión de Worthen.  V?  2 records – a specimen taken at 2 km.W of El Limon (west of Perote) on 24 Sept. 1948 (Dalquest); and a flock of birds seen by WJS and Roland Wauer below the Puerto del Aire and above the village of Acultzingo on 8 Jan. 1981.  They were seen in grassy pasture-land with shrubs and a few scattered pine trees at an estimated elevation of 1900 m.  We saw the flock alight in an open area with grass at a distance of ca. 15 m, and were able to see all the field marks of this rare species:  the all pinkish bill, the rusty crown patch, and the gray nape and forehead.  More field work should be done on the plateau edges in W. Veracruz to see if these small sparrows still exist there.

676.   Aimophila s. superciliosa Swainson 1837 (Oriturus AOU).  Striped Sparrow.  Zacatonero Rayado.  R, fc. 1500 to 3000 m. in the western mountains:  Las Vigas, Cofre de Perote.  O = fields with bunch-grass in pine woodland, to open oak woodland with grass..

677.   A. mysticalis  (Hartlaub) 1852.  Bridled Sparrow.  Zacatonero Bigote-blanco.  R, fc – c. only in west-central mountains, 900 – 1800 m.  O with rocky substrate and grass or shrubs.  Most common on lower (eastern) slope of Pico de Orizaba in Veracruz.

678.   A. rufescens pyrgitoides  (Lafresnaye) 1839.  Rusty Sparrow.  R, fc – c. SL to 2000 m.  Not present at low altitudes in about the northern half of the State.  POF, pine forest and edges, S and edges, in Los Tuxtlas in RF edges, S.  More common in more open areas than in forest interior.

679.   A. ruficeps boucardi  (Sclater) 1857.  Rufous-crowned Sparrow.  Zacatonero Coronirrufo.  R, fc – c. 900 – 3000 m. in western mountains – Zacualpilla, Orizaba, Cofre de Perote.  Arid and semi-humid, with shrubs & thickets and grass.  Note:  the SW U.S. subspecies A. ruficeps ermoica has been recorded from the Maltrata area just under the plateau edge above Orizaba.

680.   A. botterii botterii  (Sclater) 1857.  Botteri's Sparrow.  Zacatonero de Botteri.  SR, fc – c.  Breeds from northern Veracruz (Laguna de Tamiahua) south to the mountains of western central Veracruz – SL to 2500 m. April to Sept.  We still do not know where they winter!  Thorn forest, with grassland clearings, savannahs & overgrown fields & pastures.

a.       A. b. texana  Phillips 1947.  Breeds in extreme southern Texas & Tamaulipas.  Our only wintering records were 3 birds netted and examined in the hand by WJS, and released, near Catemaco, on 13 Feb. 1984, on the grassy slopes of Cerro Nixtamalapan.  He decided they were most probably A. b. texana, paler than the nominate race.  During several more years (1987, 1988) he repeated the netting on the same volcanic, grass-covered cone, with the same results:  7 more gray northern Botteri’s Sparrows.  Specimens are urgently needed to see if these are indeed texana.

681.   A. p. petenica  (Salvin) 1863.  Yellow-carpalled Sparrow.  Zacatonero Aliamarillo.  WJS maintains this form as a full species, because we still have no intergradation with botterii and the simple fact that the species is found in a different habitat:  rain-forest edge and overgrown, abandoned pastures.  Further south, in Guatemala, the species inhabits pine-forest and grasslands.  It is a SR, arriving in southeastern Veracruz (Los Tuxtlas) in early April and leaving in late August.  DNA studies should be initiated for this species.  SL to 500 m.

682.   Junco h. hyemalis  (Linnaeus) 1758.  Dark-eyed Junco.  Junco Ojioscuro.  V – one specimen record, netted at Playa Escondida on 27 November, 1973, provides the only record for the State of Veracruz.  WJS’ hypothesis to explain this startling occurrence is that the bird flew south with migrants of other species through “migratory excitement.”  (See also Selasphorus rufus and Dendroica pinus for similar examples of migratory excitement.)

683.   J. p. phaeonotus  Wagler 1831.  Yellow-eyed Junco.  Junco Ojilumbre.  R, fc – c, in the western mountains:  1200 – 3500 m.  Pine forest, POF, occasionally oak woodland, but always with grassy clearings.

684.   M. lincolnii  (Audubon) 1834.  Lincoln’s Sparrow.  Gorrión de Lincoln.  NM, fc – c.  Winters throughout the State, SL – 3000 m. Oct. – mid-May.  WS on passage, HF edge, RF edge, S edge, O.  Perhaps our most common sparrow.

685.   M. georgiana  (Latham)  ….  Swamp Sparrow.  Gorrion Pantanero.  NM, fc to central Veracruz, r to Los Tuxtlas (not recorded there by Howell & Webb, 1995:  726, map).  SL to 340 m. (Lake Catemaco).  H including coastal lagoons.  Oct. – late April.  Migrates north coast-wise during April – Tecolutla (Howell and Webb, pers. comm.) and Los Tuxtlas (WJS).

686.   M. melodia cf. mexicana  Ridgway 1874  Song Sparrow.  Gorrion Cantor.  R, u?  Small marshes in the western mountains (near Las Vigas and Perote, Pronatura).  H.

687.   Calcarius lapponicus  Linnaeus 1758.  Lapland Longspur.  Escribano Artico.  V.  One record (a flock) near Las Barrancas, south of Veracruz Puerto, Feb. 1985 (SNG Howell, Peter Pyle & Sophie Webb).

688.   C. ornatus  (Townsend) 1837.  Chestnut-collared Longspur.  Escribano Cuellicastaño.  V – 1 specimen record:  Valle de Orizaba, Sumichrast, 1869.


Family Icteridae


689.   Spiza americana  (Gmelin) 1789  Dickcissel.  Arrocero Americano.  T, fc – a (occasionally), late Aug. – Nove, and April & May.  W.S. on migration, SL to 1500 m.  WJS had no winter records in southeastern Veracruz, and Isthmian Oaxaca, contra Howell & Webb 1995:  690, map).

690.   Dolichonyx oryzivorus  (Linnaeus) 1758.  Bobolink.  Tordo Arrocero.  V – 1 published record at Tecolutla, per PW (see Howell & Webb 1995:  734).  TBL again.

691.   Sturnella magna mexicana  Sclater 1861.  Eastern Meadowlark.  Pradero Comun.  R, fc – c. SL to 2500 m.  O, H in wet pastures.

a.       S. m. alticola  Nelson 1900.  R on plateau.

692.   S. neglecta  Audubon 1834.  Western Meadowlark.  Pradero Occidental.  NM, u – r.  Winters in northern Veracruz (SL to 2000? m.).  V south to Los Tuxtlas (Winker et al. 1991:  715, and WJS), probably wind-blown by a “norte” (i.e. overshooting).

693.   Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus  (Bonaparte) 1826.  Yellow-Headed
Blackbird.  Tordo Cabeciamarillo.  NM u, in extreme northern Veracruz, south to Ozoluama.  (WJS sightings and range map in H & W 1995:  736 – 737.)  V to near Veracruz Puerto and a point between Angel R. Cabada and Lerdo de Tejada, on the coastal plain, published in Historia Natural de Los Tuxtlas, 1997:  587.  TBL in O.

694.   Agelaius phoeniceus richmondi  Nelson 1897.  Red-winged Blackbird.  Tordo Sargento.  R, fc but local in S.E. Veracruz, SL to 1200 m. in Tuxtla and Uxpanapa regions.

a.       A. p. megapotamus  Oberholser 1919.  This subspecies is R, fc in central & northern Veracruz, SL to 2000 m.  Both are H and adjacent O.

695.   Icterus g. galbula  (Linnaeus) 1758.  Northern Oriole.  Bolsero Norteno.  NM, fc – c, SL to 2500 m.  More common at lower elevations.  Late Aug. – May.  WS on passage.  Winters in HF edge, RF edge, S, and O, with trees, including hedgerows.

696.   I. bullockii  (Swainson) 1827.  Bullock’s Oriole.  Bolsero de Abeille.  R, u. in western mountains – 1500 to 3000 m.  POF, oak woodland, O with trees and shrubs.

697.   I. abeillei  (Lesson) 1839.  Abeille’s Oriole.  Bolsero de Abeille.  R, u, in western mountains – 1500 to 3000 m.  POF, pine forest, and O with grass, shrubs, down to oak woodland.  WJS maintains this form as a full species because he oberved bullockii and abeillei nesting sympatrically in the mountains of SW Jalisco and Colima (1958 – 59).  At each nest he observed pairs bringing food to nestlings & in each case (8 observations) both parents were the same, whether bullockii or abeillei.  For this reason he feels that the so-called intergrades are hybrids.  More field studies are needed to resolve this question – as always!

698.   I. gularis tamaulipensis  Ridgway 1901.  Altamira Oriole.  Bolsero de Altamira.  R, fc – c. SL to 1500 m.  S, including swamp forest, O, with flowering trees & shrubs, to oak woodland.

699.   I. graduacauda audubonii  Girard 1841.  Audubon’s Oriole.  Bolsero Cabecinegro.  R, c – fc in northern and central Veracruz, south to Orizaba.  Near SL in northern Veracruz, and from 500 to 2500 m. in the western mountains.  HF, S, O (clearings in woodlands).

700.   I. dominicensis prosthemelas  (Strickland) 1850.  Black-cowled Orioles.  Bolsero Capuchinegra.  R, fc – c, SL to 500 m, occasionally to 1000 m. in HF, and RF, also in O, from the Cordoba-Orizaba region southeast to the Uxpanapa region.

701.   I. chrysater chrysater  (Lesson) 1844.  Yellow-backed Oriole.  Bolsero Dorsidorado.  R, now r?  Only in the Tuxtla region.  SL (in winter) to 900 m.  Altitudinal migrant.  Breeds in pine-evergreen oak forest (now, alas, almost destroyed) and in CF of evergreen-oak and sweet-gum.  Most probably endangered.  It was an isolated population which was never (?) numerous (see Andrle 1969:  174).

702.   I. w. wagleri  Sclater 1857.  Black-vented Oriole.  Bolsero de Wagler.  R, fc in the western mountains, altitudinal migrant in winter:  1200 to 2500 m.  S and edge, O with shrubs & trees.  Comes down to level of Jalapa in winter.

703.   I. spurius spurius  (Linnaeus) 1766.  Orchard Oriole.  Bolsero Castaño.  NM, fc – c, SL to 2000 m 6 Aug. – 14 May in Los Tuxtlas (at least).  In western Veracruz it is only T, Aug. – Sept. & March – May.

a.       I. s. fuertesii  Chapman 1911.  This resident subspecies breeds in northern coastal Veracruz south to central Veracruz (at least).  It winters on the coastal plain to the Tuxtla region and may also breed there.  More field studies, including specimens, are needed to elucidate this problem.

704.   I. parisorum  Bonaparte 1839.  Scott's Oriole.  Bolsero Tunero.  V.  Two WJS sightings:  near Zacualpilla and Huayacocotla in northern Veracruz – March 1977.

705.   I. c. cucullatus  Swainson 1827.  Hooded Oriole.  Bolsero Cuculado.  R, u – SL to 1500 m. in northern Veracruz, and SL to 100 m in remainder of the State and always coastal.  S and edge, O with shrubs & trees, Co (in dune vegetation).

706.   I. mesomelas  (Wagler) 1829.  Yellow-tailed Oriole.  Bolsero Coliamarillo.  R, fc – u., occurs mainly on the coastal plain – SL to 300 m.  RF edge, S edge (mangroves & swamp forest), H with scattered thickets & trees.  It has occurred (rarely) as high as Lake Catemaco (340 m).

707.   Dives dives dives  (Deppe) 1830.  Melodious Blackbird.  Tordo Cantor.  R, fc – c, SL to 2000 m. throughout the State.  O with trees & shrubs, S edge, HF edge, RF edge.  In the mountains, in oak woodland edge.

708.   Euphagus cyanocephalus  (Wagler) 1829.  Brewer's Blackbird.  Tordo Migratorio.  NM, fc – c. SL to 2500 m. 15 Sept. – 6 May.  Now winters in Los Tuxtlas, common since 1987 on the coastal plain and in the Catemaco basin.  O, especially grassy areas with cattle.

709.   Quiscalus m. mexicanus  (Gmelin) 1789.  Great-tailed Grackle.  Picho Zanate.  R, super-abundant!  SL to at least 1500 m.  Absent from high mountains and dense forest.  WJS & SH have seen large flights of northern birds along the coast in fall and spring.  In Los Tuxtlas, the population swells considerably with wintering northern migrants in fall (October – Nov.) and diminishes (slightly) in spring (April).  This is now the most abundant species in Veracruz.

710.   Molothrus a. aeneas  (Wagler) 1829.  Red-eyed (“Bronzed”) Cowbird.  Tordo Ojirrojo.  R, fc – c; SL to 3000 m.  In winter, in O, but from March to Sept. they are found in HF edge, RF edge, S (including swamp forest) where the ♀♀ search out nesting birds to lay their eggs, very often destroying the other species’ eggs by piercing the egg with her bill.  WJS has a list of at least 33 species whose nests he has seen parasitized by these cowbirds.  The list is undoubtedly much longer when more observations have been recorded.

711.   Molothrus ater ater.  Boddaert 1783.  Brown-headed Cowbird.  Tordo Cabecicafé.  NM, fc – c, in the lowlands of N. Veracruz, SL to 1400 m. (in valley above W. Orizaba, where it may breed – fide Ernesto Ruelas, Pronatura).  O, grasslands with cattle, forest edge, woodland edge.  Two subspecies have been recorded in the State:  this one and M. a. obscurus.  The species winters as far SE as Los Tuxtlas.  See Winker et al. 1992:  715 and Wetmore 1943:  321.

712.   Scaphidura oryzivora impacifica  (Peters) 1929.  Giant Cowbird.  Vaquero Gigante.  R, fc – c, SL to 800 m.  This species has increased in southern Veracruz since the destruction of the rainforest and with the consequent increase of the Montezuma Oropendola.  Open areas with trees, HF edge, RF edge.

713.   Amblycercus h. holosericeus  (Deppe) 1830.  Yellow-billed Cacique.  Cacique Piquiclaro.  R, fc – c, SL to 1500 m., most of the lowlands of the State.  HF edge, RF edge, S, including swamp forest, O with trees & thickets.

714.   Psarocolius w. wagleri  (Gray & Mitchell) 1844.  Chestnut-headed Oropendula.  Zácua Cabecicastaña.  R, now u – r, SL to 1200 m.  Córdoba region southeast to Los Tuxtlas and Uxpanapa regions – now r. in Los Tuxtlas (and elsewhere?) due to greatly increased populations of the following species (see below).  HF, RF, and edges.  WJS considers it endangered in Los Tuxtlas.

715.   P. montezuma  (Lesson) 1830.  Montezuma Oropendola.  Zácua Común.  R, fc – c, now very common in Los Tuxtlas.  WJS has seen non-breeding flocks of 700& birds in the winter.  They are now so populous, and begin to breed about 2, sometimes 3 weeks before the preceeding, that the Chestnut-headed Oropendolas have difficulty in finding appropriate nesting trees.  HF and edge, RF and edge, S and edge, and O when feeding.  They now roost in the trees of Catemaco and morning and evening flights are seen going & coming from their feeding grounds.


Family Passeridae nec Fringillidae” AOU

Subfamily Passerinae


716.   Passer domesticus  House Sparrow.  Gorrión Doméstico.  Introduced – now R, c, in every town & city of the State.  This species has spread, since its introduction from Europe to New York in the 1880’s throughout temperate North America south as far as central Panamá.  This is perhaps the most successful foreign (bird) invader of the Americas.


Subfamily Carduelinae


717.   Carduelis pinus macroptera  (Bonaparte) 1851.  Pine Siskin.  Dominico Pinero.  R, fc – c; 1800 – 3000 m. in the western mountains – Cofre de Perote, Las Vigas, southwest slope of Pico de Orizaba.  Pine and juniper forest, POF, down-slope to oak woodland in winter.  V to Los Tuxtlas – 1 record by WJS on 27 March 1972 during a violent “surada” with winds estimated (by him) as close to 100 kmph:  a flock (rough count = 300 birds) in a weedy field just above SL, on the coast at Jicacal.  This record is so incredible that even WJS has difficulty believing it!  But it apparently involved a flock that was going across (E-W) the pine ridges N.E. of Matiás when the flock was blown north by the “surada,” so it must be considered another wind-blown vagrant occurrence.

718.   C. n. notata  DuBus 1847.  Black-headed Siskin.  Dominico Cabecinegro.  R, fc to c; 900 – 3000 m. in the western mountains.  Altitudinal migrant, coming downslope in winter to lower elevations.  Pine forest, POF, oak woodland, down to montane HF in winter, O = grassy clearings in the forest.

719.   C.  tristis  (Linnaeus) 1758.  American Goldfinch.  Dominico Americano.  NM, u – fc, SL to 2000 (?) m. northern Veracruz.  O, especially weedy fields.

a.       C. t. pallida  (Mearns) 1890.  This western subspecies has been recorded from Jalapa and Teocelo in central Veracruz.  O, weedy fields.  V:  2 records in Los Tuxtlas (WJS) – 1. a flock of ca. 17 seen well at close range = 6 – 20 m. for 5 minutes near Lerdo de Tejada and 2. a flock of 9 birds seen at 10 to 50 m. for 8 minutes.  Most probably migrants which “overshot” their normal wintering range due to strong north winds = C. t. tristis?

720.   C. p. psaltria  Say 1823.  Lesser Goldfinch.  Dominico Dorsioscuro.  NM, fc – c SL to 1500 m in northern Veracruz Sept. – April.  O, especially grassy, weedy fields.  R, fc – c 1500 – 2500 m in western mountains  O, NM?   Now (since 1991) common winterer in Los Tuxtlas SL to 1300 m Sept. to late April.  O.

721.   Carpodacus m. mexicanus  (Müller) 1776.  House Finch.  Fringílido Mexicano. R, fc – c 1400 – 2500 m. in the western mountains.  Arid O, includes towns & large villages.

722.   C. cassinii  Baird 1854.  Cassin's Finch.  Fringilido de Cassin.  V one record (Sartorius) at Mirador, above Huatusco.

723.   Loxia curvirostra stricklandi  Ridgway 1885.  Red Crossbill.  Picotuerto Rojo.  R, fc 1800 – 3000 m in the western mountains.

724.   Coccothraustes a. abeillei  (Lesson) 1839.  Hooded Grosbeak.  Pepitero Encapuchado.  R, u to fc 1000 to 3000 m in the western mountains.

725.   C. vespertinus mexicanus  (Chapman) 1898.  Evening Grosbeak.  Pepitero Norteño.  R, u – r 1500 – 3000 m only on SW flank of the Pico de Orizaba in Veracruz.  Pine forest and POF.


 [nn1]Willy prefers that “State” be capitalized (perhaps as a proper pronoun?)

 [nn2]Keep abbrevs. to keep it shorter?  Change for consistency?

 [nn3]Meters:  m.s or ms. Or m.?

 [p4]Perhaps a specific font should be used so these abbreviations stand out from the text more?

 [p5]Lookout for “f” instead.

 [nn6]I did not note any lowercase “v” notations – difficult to distinguish from “r” with Willy’s handwriting.

 [p7]Was this supposed to be “D. and D. Pashley?”

 [p8]Still to be determined…

 [p9]This could be changed to italics, and blended with the above comment:  “All foreign words except birds’ names have been italicized.”

 [p10]This may be a registered or trademarked name.

 [p11]This may be a registered or trademarked name.

 [p12]I don’t remember what the distinction between parentheses and no parentheses is.

 [p13]With period, or without?

 [p14]From proofread of “duplicate” pages.

 [p15]From proofread of  other pages.

 [p16]“locally to 1000 m.” in Los Tuxtlas?

 [p17]Perhaps this should be left out until it is confirmed which records there are, and which records there are not.

 [p18]… (UNAM 1997:  pp?).

 [p19]Unsure what exactly you intended to say with this addition.

 [p20]Is this meant to be a small “v” for very rare, or a large “V” for vagrant?

 [B21]Should Cassin be in parentheses?

 [p22]Should this be a lower-case “v?”

 [p23]I changed these from references to the bird number to the Latin name, for clarity and to avoid potential errors due to changes in the numbering.

 [p24]Is this a Spanish word?  Should this be explained?

 [p25]Is this not redundant?  Are the non-aerial types of overflights?

 [p26]Should this be reworded to say “recorded from …”?

 [p27]Why small “e”?


 [nn29]need to clarify abbreviations for names.

 [p30]Since this is the English common name, would you still want the Spanish diacritical marks?

 [B31]verify location...


 [ME33]Meaning “B. salvini salvini”?

 [p34]After reviewing this entry and a few others, I get the impression that you changed your meaning of “u” from “uncommon” to perhaps “usual?”

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Veracruz, Mexico