A Partially Annotated and Taxonomic Checklist of
The Birds of The State of
By W. J. Schaldach, Jr. 1998-2003
1. Tinamus major percautus Van Tyne 1935. nec Tinamus major robustus Sclater and Salvin 1868, contra AOU 1983 & suppl. Great Tinamou. Tinamú Mayor. R, r, RF only in the Tuxtla and Uxpanapa regions. For use of this name, contra AOU 1983, see: Distributional Check-List of the Birds of Mexico, Part I: 9, 1950; Wetmore 1943: 228; and Schaldach, Escalante, and Winker 1997: 94. This southeastern Mexican subspecies is grayer throughout than robustus, with darker slate-blue legs. It is very distinct.
2. Crypturellus soui meserythrus (Sclater) 1860. Little Tinamou. Tinamú Menor. R, r, RF only in Tuxtla and Uxpanapa regions. Endangered.
3. C. cinnamomeus sallaei (Bonaparte) 1856. Thicket Tinamou. Tinamú Canelo. R, fc, RF, HF and S.
a. C. c. mexicanus (Salvodir) 1895. North Veracruz R
4. C. boucardi boucardi (Sclater) 1859. Slaty-breasted Tinamou. Tinamú Jamuey. R, u, RF, only in Tuxtla and Uxpanapa regions. Threatened.
Gavia immer ellasson Bishop 1921. Common Loon.
Colimbo Común. NM,V, r, 2
winter records: Laguna Tamiahua and
6. Puffinus l’herminieri Lesson 1839. Audubon’s Shearwater. Pardela de Audubon. P,V – 19 sightings by WJS off Tuxtla coast during 9 years of fishing.
P. diomedea Cory’s Shearwater. Pardela de
Cory. PV 1 record
by WJS, at sea 15 kms. northeast. of Punta Roca Partida on
P. gravis Greater Shearwater. Pardela Mayor. PV 1 record by WJS at sea 17 kms. north-northwest
of Punta Zapotitlan off the Tuxtla coast, August 1989. This is apparently the 1st record
Family Oceanitidae, nec Hydrobatidiae, auctorum
Oceanites oceanicus (Kuhl) 1820.
Phaethon aethereus mesonatus Peters
1930. Red-billed Tropicbird. Rabijunco Piquirrojo. PV.
WJS had only 5 sighting in 9 years, all in September and October and all
after hurricanes. These are probably the
first records for this pelagic species in
Fregata magnificens rothschildi Mathew
1915. Magnificent Frigatebird. Fragata Magnífica. R, fc, Co, breeds on Isla Terrón on Tuxtla
coast, and on islands in lagunas on the whole
12. Pelecanus erythrorhynchus Gmelin 1789. White Pelican. Pelicano Blanco. NM, fc, Co, WS on passage – Sept. – late May.
P. occidentalis carolinensis Gmelin 1789.
Brown Pelican, Pelicano Café. R, c, breeds in
Morus bassanus (Linnaeus) 1758. Northern Gannet. Bobo Norteño.
Sula leucogaster (Boddaert) 1783. Brown Booby.
Bobo Vientre-blanco. P, rc
visitor to Tuxtla coast waters in non-breeding season (Aug – April). WJS had 33 sightings offshore while fishing,
and 1 sighting from the beach at La Barra de la Laguna de Sontecomapan on
Sula dactylatra Lesson 1831. Masked Booby.
Bobo Enmascarado. PV – 25 WJS
sight records: 29 July to 2 May off
Tuxtla coast. This species was recorded
(1 sighting WJS) in Howell & Webb 1995: 122 for
Sula sula sula Linnaeus 1758. Red-footed Booby. Bobo Patirrojo. PV – 1 record, 3 birds seen by WJS from
Tuxtla coast after a hurricane on
Anhinga anhinga leucoptera (Vieillot) 1816.
Anhinga. Anhinga Americana. R/NM – fc, Coastal
lagoons & lakes, large rivers. Migrant
flights seen on coast in fall & spring; flights often seen amid migrating
hawk streams in the “
19. Phalacrocorax olivaceus mexicanus (Brandt) 1837. Nec P. brasilianus AOU et auctorum. Neotropical Cormorant. Cormorán Neotropical. R/NM, Co, H, c.
P. auritus floridanus (Audobon)
1835. Double-crested Cormorant. Cormorán Bicrestado. NM, u Oct. – end April. Co, also on
22. Jabiru mycteria (Lichenstein) 1819. Jabiru. Jabirú. V – 3 records: WJS = 1 at the Lerdo marshes, Sept. 1969, 1 at the marshes of the Río Chuniapan, an immature, on 2 September, 2001, with a group of birders, and 1 seen at a small coastal lagoon, Laguna La Mancha, north of Cardel by Ernesto Ruelas I of Pronatura.
Family Vulturidae, nec Cathartidae auctorum
23. Cathartes aura aura (Linnaeus) 1758. Turkey Vulture. Aura Cabecirroja. NM/T, abundant in fall migration in the “River of the Raptors.” c, almost always seen flying.
Coragyps atratus (Bechstein) 1793. Black Vulture. Zopilote, Nopo in
25. Cathartes b. burrovianus Cassin 1854. Yellow-headed Vulture. Aura Cabeciamarilla. SR, fc, mainly coastal = late Feb. to early Nov.
Sarcorhamphus papa (Linnaeus) 1758. King Vulture.
Zopilite Rey, Rey Nopo in
Family Cuculidae (follows Olson 1985)
Coccyzus erythrophthalmus (
C. a. americanus (Linnaeus) 1758. Yellow-billed Cuckoo. Cuco Piquiamarillo. T, fc.
WS late Aug. – early Dec. and late April to mid-June. No breeding record yet in the State, but TBL
in extreme North. Winters in
29. C. minor continentalis Van Rossem 1934. Mangrove Cuckoo. Cuco Manglero. R, fc. S, scarce in mangroves!
30. Piaya cayana thermophila Sclater 1859. Squirrel Cuckoo. Cuco Ardilla. R. c., RF edge, S, mainly lowlands (to 1250 m. in the State).
31. Crotophaga s. sulcirostris Swainson 1827. Groove-billed Ani. Garrapatero Pijuy. R, c to a. O, especially in cow pastures.
Tapera naevia excellens Sclater
1857. Striped Cuckoo. Cuco Rayado.
SR, fc. – March to late Oct. RF,
S. No winter records, at least in Tuxtla
region. WJS has recorded the first host
Dromococcyx phasianellus rufigalaris
Geococcyx v. velox (Wagner) 1836. Lesser Roadrunner. Correcaminos
Menor. R, u, o. Known only from the type and sightings by WJS and Pronatura
ornithologists in open grassy areas on the SSW flank of Pico de Orizaba, above
the city of
Polyborus plancus audubonii Cassin 1865.
Audubon’s Caracara (Crested Caracara = AOU). Cacaracara
Común. R. fc. O, S, WS – to
Daptrius americanus guatemalensis Swann
1921. Red-throated Caracara. Comecacao.
Formerly r. R., now extinct in
37. Herpetotheres cachinnans chapmani Bangs and Penard 1918. Laughing Falcon. Halcón Guaco. R, fc. HF, edge. RF edge, S, O.; WS to 1500 m. Still fairly common in southeast.
38. Micrastur ruficollis guerilla Cassin 1848. Barred Forest-falcon. Halcón-selvatico Barrado. R. u. HF, RF. Only inside the forest. Now endangered in Tuxtlas and Uxpanapa regions. Scarce due to forest destruction.
39. M. semitorquatus naso Lesson 1842. Collared Forest-falcon. Halcón-selvatico Collarejo. R. u – fc. HF, RF, S. Often seen in second-growth forest. Not endangered yet?
Falco peregrinus anatum Bonaparte 1838.
Peregrine Falcon. Halcón
Fc. WS, to
F. mexicanus Schlegel 1843. Prairie Falcon. Halcón Pradeño. NM. R. O.
Although not shown on the map (Howell & Webb 1995: 219), the
Pronatura ornithologists; Sergio Aguilar, Ernesto Ruelas, Octavio Cruz, Jorge
Montejo, and also WJS have many sightings in Central Veracruz, from
F. columbarius columbarius Linnaeus 1758. Merlin. Esmerejón.
NM, u – r in winter, often seen in small flocks in transient periods: 28 Sept. to 4 Nov. – 25 March to 30
April. Most winter in
43. F. femoralis septentrionalis Todd 1916. Aplomado Falcon. Halcón Aplomado. R. u., O, often H (marshes). This is another species threatened by man’s agricultural activities. See map in Howell & Webb 1995: 217 to see the extent of its lost range.
F. deiroleucus Temminck 1825. Orange-breasted falcon. Halcón Pechirrufo. SR, r.
No winter records. O, H, S. WJS had 35 sightings in 33 years in Los
Tuxtlas between 11 March and 29 August.
Winker et al. 1992: 703 recorded
the species for the first time in
45. F. rufigularis petoensis Chubb date?. Bat Falcon. Halcón Murcielaguero. R, fc, RF, HF, S edges, O. breeds in mid-Dec. to fledglings seen in first flight in mid-February.
46. F. s. sparverius Linnaeus 1758. American Kestrel. Cernícalo Americano. NM, fc. O, WS 16 Sept. – 8 May.
F. s. paulus Howe and King 1902. V – 1 specimen recorded near
Order Accipitriformes ordo novus – new Order
(See Olson 1985)
47. Pandion haliaetus carolinensis (Gmelin) 1788. Osprey. Aguililla Pescadora. NM, fc. Co H. 10 July – 27 May in Los Tuxtlas (WJS).
P. haliaetus ridgwayi Maynard 1888. V, but has nested and raised fledglings once
at Laguna Sontecomapan. The genus Pandion is known from Early Oligocene (
Elanus leucurus leucurus Vieillot 1819. White-tailed Kite. Milano Coliblanco. SR; fc, r in winter; bulk of population
withdraws in August – Sept. Spring
arrival date in numbers is
Elanoides f. forficatus (Linnaeus)
1758. Swallow-tailed Kite. Milano Tijereta. T, u.
Migrant flights in fall in the “
50. Leptodon cayennensis mexicanus (Swann) 1922. Gray-headed Kite. Milano Cabecigris. R., u. RF, HF, S. Now endangered in Los Tuxtlas and Uxpanapa regions. See Schaldach, Escalante, and Winker, 1997, for maintenance of Swann’s name as a valid subspecies.
51. Chondrohierax uncinatus uncinatus (Temminck) 1822. Hook-billed Kite. Milano Piquiganchudo. R, now uncommon in whole State(?) due to habitat loss. RF edge, S, including mangroves, H.
52. Busarellus n. nigricollis (Latham) 1790. Black-collared Hawk. Aguililla Canela. R, r. u. H. This species is a Kite (Fide Olson 1985).
Harpagus bidentatus fasciatus
54. Rostrhamus sociabilis major Nelson and Goldman 1933. Snail-kite. Gavilán Caracolero. R, now u in Tuxtlas and elsewhere, due to habitat loss, plus, in Los Tuxtlas by swamp drainage and direct competition by man for its main food, the Apple Snail (Pomacea).
Ictinia misisippiensis (
Ictinia plumbea (Gmelin) 1788. Plumbeus Kite. Milano Plomizo. SR, fc March – Oct., no winter records;
Accipiter bicolor fidens Bangs and Penard
1918. Bicolored Hawk. Gavilán Bicolor. SR, r, at least in Tuxtlas. RF, HF, S.
Seldom seen outside forest. Some
58. Accipiter cooperii (Bonaparte) 1828. Cooper’s Hawk. Gavilan de Cooper. NM, fc, S, O. Earliest date in Tuxtlas: 17 Sept – latest 30 May, WJS. Seen more often in open than following species.
Accipiter striatus velox (
A. s. suttoni Van Rossem 1939. R – u, POF, western mountains –
60. Buteogallus a. anthracinus Deppe 1830. Common Black Hawk. Aguililla Negra Menor. R, c. S, near water; H, Co.
B. urubitinga ridgwayi (Gurney)
1884. Great Black Hawk. Aguililla
Negra Mayor. R, u to fc. H; S, Co. More common in drier areas of
Leucopternis albicollis ghiesbreghti (Dubus)
1845. White Hawk. Aguililla Blanca. R, now rare and endangered in Tuxtlas and
Uxpanapa region due to loss of habitat = RF, formerly often seen over S and HF,
now extinct in southern central
Parabuteo unicinctus harrisii (Audubon)
1837. Harris’ Hawk. Aguililla de Harris. NM, it is an uncommon and irregular winter
visitant (Contra Howell & Webb
1995:195, who apparently had no records in the State.) Ernesto Ruelas, Jorge Montejo,
Sergio Aguilar, Octavio Cruz, and WJS had numerous sightings in winter in
64. Buteo nitidus plagiatus (Schlegel) 1862. Gray Hawk. Aguililla Gris. R, fc. RF, HF, S, O, H.
65. Buteo magnirostris griseocaudus (Ridgway) 1874. Roadside Hawk. Gavilán Chapulinero. R, c. WS, includes O and H. ranges rarely to 2000 m. Most common on coastal lowlands. This is the most common resident hawk in the State.
Buteo lineatus texanus Bishop 1912. Red-shouldered Hawk. Gavilán Pechirrojo. NM, u. to r. to central
Buteo p. platypterus (Vieillot)
1823. Broadwinged Hawk. Gavilán Aliancha. T, abundant transient in migration,
especially in the “
68. Buteo brachyurus fuliginosus Sclater 1858. Short-tailed Hawk. Gavilán Colicorta. R, fc, RF, HF, S. Usually seen over weeded areas.
Buteo swainsonii Bonaparte 1838. Swainson’s Hawk –
Aguililla de Swainson. NM/T, Abundant transient in “
Buteo albicaudatus hypospodius Gurney
1876. White-tailed Hawk. Aguililla Coliblanca. R, fc
in northern to central
Buteo a. albonotatus Kaup 1837. Zone-tailed Hawk. Aguililla Aura. NMV – fc. Sept. to April. RF, HF, S, O. WS in winter in
72. Buteo jamaicensis calurus Cassin 1855. Red-tailed Hawk. Aguililla Colirroja. NM/W, fc -c. WS, O.
B. j. hadropus Storer 1962. R, u. POF in western mountains. Wintering in southern
73. Harpyhaliactus solitarius (Tschudi) 1844. Solitary Eagle. Aguila Solitaria. Contra Howell and Webb 1995: 195 – 196, there really was a small, disjunct population of this unmistakable species in Los Tuxtlas. It was first reported for Los Tuxtlas by Winker et al. 1992: 702: an immature. WJS had a total of 18 sightings of this species over his years of observation in the Tuxtla region: 7 adults and 11 immatures. One adult was seen also by Dale Delany. But the forest destruction of the 70’s and 80’s decimated the cloud forest and the last sighting was of a single immature flying near the summit of Volcan San Martín on 24 March 1994, seen also by Dra. Patricia Escalante. WJS fears that this small population is extinct.
75. Harpia harpyja (Linnaeus) 1758. Harpy Eagle. Aguila Arpia. Extinct in 1955 in Los Tuxtlas and in 1980’s? in Uxpanapa. Formerly SR, arriving in March and disappearing in Sept., fide old hunters whom WJS interviewed in the 1970’s in Los Tuxtlas.
Spizastur melanoleucus (Viellot) 1816. Black-and-white
Hawk-eagle. Formerly R, r. WJS’ last sighting in Los Tuxtlas on
77. Spizaëtus tyrannus (Wied) 1820. Black Hawk-eagle. Águila Tirana. R, u. RF, A. Now rare and endangered, but still present in Los Tuxtlas (2003).
78. Spizaëtus ornatus vicarious Friedmann 1935. Ornate Hawk-eagle. Aguila Elegante. R. Now rare and endangered. WJS’ last sighting was in 1999 on the Rio Chuniapan in Los Tuxtlas, but its unmistakable whistle was heard in 2001.
79. Haliaetus l. leucocephalus (Linnaeus) 1758. Bald eagle. Aguila Cabeciblanca. NM to Laguna de Tamiahua, V south to Laguna de Alvarado (Saunders, in Loetscher 1955: 25) = 2 records.
80. Circus cyaneus hudsonius (Linnaeus) 1766. Northern Harrier. Gavilán Rastrero. NM, fc Sept. – 6 May (WJS). WS in O, mainly on the coastal plain, but occurs in open areas (rarely) to 2500 m. in W. mountains.
“Geranospiza” n. nigra (DuBus)
1847. Crane Hawk. Gavilán Zancudo. R, u-r; O, S, H. mainly coastal, but occurs
Ortalis v. vetula (Wagler)
1830. Plain Chachalaca. Chachalaca Común. R, c, WS in O
throughout lowlands of the State, reaching to
Ortalis v. mccallii (Baird) 1858. extreme
83. Penelope p. purpurascens Wagler 1830. Crested Guan. Pavo Cojolito. R, now uncommon. Formerly wide-spread in RF, HF; now confined to “island” patches on steep slopes, due to constant illicit hunting and forest destruction. To 2500 m. in western mountains.
84. Crax rubra rubra Linnaeus 1758. Great Curassow. Hoco-faisan. R, now r. formerly WS in HF, RF, now confined to island forest patches on steepest slopes due to constant illicit hunting and forest destruction. Ocurred to 1500 m. in mountains. Both of above species are highly endangered and close to extinction in the State.
Meleagris g. gallapavo Linnaeus
1758. Wild Turkey. Guajolote Silvestre. HF, POF.
Formerly resident in the
Dendrortyx barbatus Gould 1846. Bearded Wood-partridge. Chiviscoyo.
R, only in the western mountains of
D. macroura macroura (Jardine and
Selby) 1828. Long-tailed Wood-partridge. R, POF, oak woodland in the western mountains
Colinus virginianus godmani Nelson
1897. Northern Bobwhite. Codorniz-cotui Nortena. R, on the southeastern
a. Colinus v. pectoralis Gould 1843. R, on the central
89. Odontophorus guttatus (Gould) 1838. Spotted Wood-quail. Codorniz Bolanchaco. R, now rare and endangered due to massive loss of habitat (forest destruction). RF, including cloud forest.
90. Dactylortyx t. thoracicus (Gambel) 1848. Singing quail. Codorniz Silbadora. RF, u & HF. & cloud forest in western mountains, with an isolated population in the Tuxtla mountains, which is now probably extinct.
91. Cyrtonyx montezumae merriami Nelson 1897. Montezuma Quail. Codorniz de Moctezuma. R in the western mountains, fc. Pine and POF, oak woodland, with open grassy areas.
Order Ardeiformes (incertae sedis) Follows Ligon 1967.
Ixobrychus exilis exilis (Gmelin) 1789. Least Bittern. Avetorito Americano. R/NM, u, ? hard to see; possibly breeds in
Tuxtlas = both WJS and RWD (pers. comm. to R. F. Andrle) have heard the
breeding “song” in July to mid August in the marshes of
93. Botaurus pinnatus caribaeus ?????? ????. Pinnated Bittern. Avetoro Neotropical. SR, fc – Bulk of population withdraws after breeding – March to October, complete withdrawal in Los Tuxtlas, (No winter records) – H, especially marshes.
B. lentiginosus ???????? ????.
American Bittern. Avetoro
fc – u, SL to
Butorides v. virescens (Linnaeus) 1758. Green
Heron. Garcita Verde. R. c, SL –
96. Agamia agami (Gmelin) 1789. Agami Heron. Garza Agami. SR, u-r, SL – 150 m., withdraws during October, returns early March (at least in Tuxtlas). H, Co including mangroves. Now extremely r in Los Tuxtlas.
Ardea (Ardea) h. herodias Linnaeus 1758. Great Blue Heron. Garzón
Cenizo. NM, c-fc, SL –
Ardea (Egretta) caerulea Linnaeus
1758. Little Blue Heron. Garza
Morena, or Garza Azul. R/NM, fc – c SL –
99. Ardea (Egretta) alba egretta Gmelin 1789. Great Egret. Garzón Blanco, Garza Grande. R, fc – c in coastal lowlands, breeding. NM in mountains & foothills, and more seen in winter – (Nov. – March) in lowlands.
100. Ardea (Egretta) tricolor ruficollis (Gosse) 1847. Tricolored Heron. Garza Tricolor. NM, fc. WS, H, Co. up to 1500 m, on coastal plain up to foothills of western mountains; local breeding resident in Laguna Tamiahua, and on Tuxtla coast (WJS); TBL for breeding in Laguna Tampamochoco (Tuxpan) and Laguna de Alvarado & Papaloapan Delta.
101. Ardea (Egretta) thula thula (Molina) 1782. Snowy Egret. Garza Nivea. R/NM, c SL to 2500 m. H, Co. More seen in winter when NM present (late Aug. – April).
Bulbulcus ibis Linnaeus 1758. Cattle Egret.
Garza Ganadera. SL to
Dichromanassa rufescens (Gmelin)
1789. Reddish egret. Garza Rojiza.
NM, fc – u, SL to at least 400 m. Aug. – April. R. r, breeding locally along coast: Laguna Tamiahua, Laguna de Sontecomapan and
104. Tigrisoma m. mexicanum (Swainson) 1834. Bare-throated Tiger-Heron. Garza-tigre Gorjinuda. SR, fc SL – 1000 m. In Los Tuxtlas, the bulk of the population withdraws during Sept. – Oct., with a few remaining from Nov. – Feb. They are seen again in numbers from late Feb. – early March. More studies are needed to verify continuous residency in other areas of the State.
105. Nycticorax nycticorax hoactli (Gmelin) 1789. Black-crowned Night-heron. Garza-nocturna Coroninegra. R/NM, c, SL TO 2000 m. H, WS, Co. Migrating flights seen along coast in fall and spring. This species was among the first Mexican birds described by European naturalists.
106. N. v. violaceus (Linnaeus) 1758. Yellow-crowned Night-heron. Garza-nocturna Coroni-clara. R/NM, fc – c SL – 1000 m, but mainly coastal. H, Co.
107. Cochlearius cochlearius phillipsii Dickerman 1973. Boat-billed Heron. Garza Cucharon. R, fc SL to 900 m. H, esp. mangroves. Not seen by day, but seen in trees just before dark. East coast birds are this subspecies, not C. c. Icledonii Auctorum.
Family Gruidae – nec Aramidae Auctorum.
(Following Olson 1985).
Aramus guarauna dolosus Peters
1925. Limpkin. Carao. R/NM, fc SL –
Rallus e. elegans Audubon 1834.
King Rail. R u H S, also in
mangroves & swamp forest. A resident, disjunct population occurs in coastal
marshes from Tecolutla at least to Los Tuxtlas.
Specimens have been identified as the
110. Rallus l. limicola Veillot 1819. Virginia Rail. Rascón de Virginia. NM – u, but WJS has winter records in Los Tuxltas (not shown by Howell & Webb 1995: 240: map). Specimens needed to verify the subspecies.
a. R. l. friedmanni Dickerman 1966. Apparently R. Calling birds heard June, July, and August. Specimens needed.
111. Rallus maculates insolitus (Bangs and Penard) 1908. Spotted Rail. Rascón Pinto. R, u SL – 1200 m. H. Tecolutla to S.E., fc in the Papaloapan Delta (WJS).
Aramides cajanea mexicana Bangs
1907. Gray-necked Woodrail. Poposcala.
R, fc SL –
Porzana carolina (Linnaeus) 1758. Sora (Rail).
NM/W, fc SL –
114. Porzana flaviventris woodi Van Rossem 1934. Yellow-breasted Crake. Polluela Pechiamarilla. R, rare, SL – 1000 m. H, Co. Found from Tecolutla to the S.E., mainly on the coast.
Amaurolimnas concolor guatemalensis (
116. Laterallus ruber (Salvin and Godman) 1860. Ruddy Crake. Polluela Rojiza. R SL – 1200 m. Common in marshes throughout the State, more common in coastal H.
117. Laterallus j. jamaicensis (Gmelin) 1789. Black Rail. Polluela Negra. R, u. Apparently a disjunct population: at Tecolutla and Los Tuxtlas, SL – 340 m.? Specimens are needed from this coastal area to determine the subspecies involved.
Gallinula chloropus cachinnans Bangs 1915.
Common Moor-hen. Gallineta Común. NM, fc – c, SL – 2000 m., winters in Los
Tuxtlas; no summer records. Breeding
needs confirmation in the State, except in western
Porphyrula martinica (Linnaeus)
1766. Purple Gallinule. Gallineta Morada. R fc –c, breeds in
Los Tuxtlas, and other marshy areas of the State, SL –
Fulica americana americana
(Gmelin) 1789. American Coot. Gallareta
Americana. NM fc – c., SL to
Heliornis fulica (Boddaert) 1783. Sungrebe.
Pájaro Cantil, Viudita. R, u, SL
to 340 m. in Los Tuxtlas; R, fc on all rivers of the State, at least formerly. Still present in Los Tuxtlas and Uxpanapa
regions, and in central
Family Podicicepidae – follows a suggestion by Olson, 1985.
122. Tachybaptus dominicus brachypterus (Chapman) 1899. Least Grebe. Zambullidor Menor. R/NM, fc to common; more seen in winter. H, Co, SL – to 1500 m. in foothills; to ca. 600 m. in Tuxtlas. Quite common still in marshy and aquatic habitats. Both fall and spring migration has been noted by Andrle (1967: 180), and by WJS: many more birds seen in winter than in summer.
123. Podiceps nigricollis californicus Heerman 1854. Eared Grebe. Zambullidor Orejudo. NM – fc – c, SL to 2000 m. early Nov. – late April. H, Co, WS in winter in aquatic habitats.
124. Podylimbus p. podiceps (Linnaeus) 1758. Pied-billed Grebe. Zambullidor Piquipinto. R/NM, fc summer, c winter, SL – 2500 m. Very common wintering, often in flocks. H, Co.
Burhinus b. bistriatus (Wagler) 1829. Double-striped Thick-knee. Alcaraván.
SR, uncommon, SL to ca. 150
m.? March to early November, South
Haematopus p. palliatus Temmink 1820. American Oystercatcher. Ostrero Americano. R, u. in Laguna Tamiahua in
Family Plataleidae = Threskiornithidae auct. (contra AOU)
(WJS follows almost all European ornithologists in maintaining Bonaparte’s Plataleidae instead of AOU’s Threskiornithidae.)
Eudocimus albus (Linnaeus) 1758. White Ibis.
Plegadis falcinellus (Linnaeus) 1758. Glossy Ibis.
Ibis Lustroso. V 1 record in Los
Tuxtlas (WJS): 1 adult in worn breeding
plumage in marshy pasture near the Rio Chunicopán,
Plegadis chihi (Vieillot) 1817. White-faced Ibis. Ibis
Cariblanco, Coco. NM, fc – u, SL –
Platalea ajaja Linnaeus 1758. Roseate Spoonbill. Espátula Rosada. NM, u –fc, SL –
131. Jacana spinosa (Linnaeus) 1758. Northern Jacana. Jacana Mesoamericana. R, fairly common resident in H throughout the State. SL to 1200 m, but mostly on the coastal plain.
Pluvialis squatarola Linnaeus 1758. Black-bellied Plover. Chorlo Gris.
T – fc to c. August – May, strictly
133. Pluvialis dominica (Müller) 1766. American Golden Plover. Chorlo-dorado Americano. T, fc to c – fall migration, WS on passage, Co, early Sept., Oct., to 1 Nov. and 27 April to 28 May (WJS, all off the Tuxtla coast except for 3 sightings offshore).
134. Charadrius alexandrinus nivosus (Cassin) 1858. Snowy Plover. Chorlito Niveo. NM, fc, rarely R breeding at Laguna Tamiahua and twice on Tuxtla coast (WJS). Strictly among coastal beaches, rarely inland.
135. C. melodus Ord 1824. Piping Plover. Chorlito Chiflador. NM, now r. due to breeding habitat loss in the North. Strictly coastal beaches and immediately adjacent lowlands.
136. C. semipalmatus Bonaparte 1825. Semipalmated Plover. Chorlito Semipalmado. NM/ T, fc – c SL to 500 m. Co, Aug. – May. Transient periods – Aug. – early Nov. and April – May.
C. wilsonia beldingi (Ridgway) 1919.
C. wilsonia wilsonia Ord 1814.
NM – fc – c. T, u. to fc. in winter SL to 500 m. Co, rarely inland (WJS has 2 records from
138. C. collaris Vieillot 1818. Collared Plover. Chorlito Collarejo. R, u. to fc SL to 1000 m. WJS has seen it near Fortin on the Rió Blanco in April. H, Co, but in Los Tuxtlas the species is SR, disappering in Sept. to Oct., reappearing in late Feb. & March – very few winter records (WJS).
139. C. v. vociferus Linnaeus 1758. Killdeer. Chorlito Tildío. NM/T. fc – c, SL to 2500 m on passage, Sept. – April – WS, O, often in dry pastures.
Capella gallinago delicata (Ord) 1825.
Common Snipe. Agachona. NM/T, fc to u SL to
Numenius a. americanus Bechstein 1812. Long-billed Curlew. Zarapito
Piquilargo. NM/T, u to fc SL to
N. borealis (Forster) 1772. Eskimo Curlew. Arapito Boreal. NM – extinct since
1963 (See Sibley 2000: 14). 1 dubious
specimen examined by WJS 1956, labelled
143. Numenius phaeopus hudsonicus Latham 1790. Whimbrel. Zarapito Trinador. NM/T, u – fc, Aug. – May, transient periods Aug. – early Oct., March – early May. Co, H, O.
Limosa haemastica (Linnaeus)
1766. Hudsonian Godwit. Picopando
Ornamental. T. No winter records. Transient period = mid-April – May and (WJS
in Tuxtlas) 12 Aug. – 4 Oct. See Howell &
Webb 1995: 270, map, for our guess at the possible trans-Isthmus route followed
by part of the population (WJS sights in Oaxaca in 1960’s). The species winters on the coasts of southern
145. Limosa fedoa (Linnaeus) 1758. Marbled Godwit. Picopando Canelo. NM/T, u in winter, strictly coastal; late July – 29 May; transient periods: Sept. to 4 Nov. and April & May.
146. Bartramia longicauda (Bechstein) 1812. Upland Sandpiper. Zarapito Del Interior. T, fc, SL to 2500 m, WS on migration – late July – mid-Oct., Late March – mid-May. Co, O.
147. Actitis macularia (Linnaeus) 1766. Spotted Sandpiper. Playero Alzacolita. NM, c SL to 2500 m., but solitary in winter. Late July to end May. H, Co.
Tringa s. solitaria
a. T. s. cinnamomea (Brewster) 1890. NM – same as above.
149. Tringa flavipes (Gmelin) 1789. Lesser Yellowlegs. Patamarilla Menor. NM, fc. to c SL to 1500 m., but mainly coastal, late July – 24 May. Co, H, WS on passage.
150. Tringa melanoleuca (Gmelin) 1789. Greater Yellowlegs. Patamarilla Manor. NM, fc. SL to 2500 m., but mainly coastal, mid-July – 29 May. Co, H, WS on passage.
151. Catoptrophorus s. semipalmatus (Gmelin) 1789. Willet. Playero Pihuihui. NM, fc. – c late July – 29 May (WJS). Co, H. A few oversummer in the State.
152. Limnodromus griseus hendersoni Rowan 1922. Short-billed Dowitcher. Costurero Piquicorto. NM, fc. to c. – 26 July – 21 May. (in Tuxtlas – WJS). Strictly Co, H (rarely).
Limnodromus scolopaceus (Say) 1823.
Long-billed Dowitcher. Costurero Piquilargo. NM, fc. – c SL to
154. Arenaria interpres morinella (Linnaeus) 1766. Ruddy Turnstone. Vuelvepiedras Rojizo. NM, T, fc. In the Tuxtla region it is only T, 9 August to 27 Nov. (WJS). Wintering records are needed for the State (Dec. – late Feb. ). Co including beaches.
Calidris (Calidris) canutus rufus (
156. Calidris (Crocethia) alba (Pallas) 1764. Sanderling. Playero Blanco. NM, fc. to c. Aug. – May. Strictly coastal.
157. Calidris (Erolia) minutilla (Vieillot) 1819. Least Sandpiper. Playerito Minimo. NM, fc – c. Co, H. Aug. – May. T through Los Tuxtlas – only 3 winter records – SNGH and WJS. Needs confirmation as wintering in the rest of the State.
Calidris (Erolia) fuscicollis (Vieillot) 1819. White-rumped Sandpiper. Playerito Rabadilla-blanca. T., fc. – u. Transient periods – 26 Aug. – 19 Oct. (in
Tuxtlas, WJS) and 20 April – 28 May (WJS).
No winter records. Co, but also
seen 4 times inland on the
Calidris (Erolia) alpina pacifica (Coves)
1861. Dunlin. Playerito Dorsirrojo. NM, r. Co, H.
First recorded by Dickerman (1972:
70) from a specimen taken at Tlacotalpan. WJS had 28 sightings in Los Tuxtlas. Howell & Webb: 278 say only “Tamps. &
160. Calidris (Erolia) melanotos (Vieillot) 1819. Pectoral Sandpiper. Playero Pectoral. T, fc. – c. 1 Aug. – Oct., mid-March – early June. H, Co.
Calidris (Erolia) bairdii (Coves) 1861.
Baird’s Sandpiper. Playerito de
Baird. T, fc – c, mid-July – Nov.,
mid-March – early June. H, less often
162. Calidris (Ereunetes) mauri (Cabanis) 1856. Western Sandpiper. Playerito Occidental. NM, fc – c, late July – May. Co, WS in transit.
163. Calidris (Ereunetes) pusilla (Linnaeus) 1758. Semipalmated Sandpiper. Playerito Sempalmado. T, fc – c. No winter records. Mid-July – Oct., late March – early June. Co, H = esp. lake shores. This sp. and Western are difficult to distinguish (See Howell & Webb 1995:275 for identification clues).
Calidris (Micropalama) himantopus (Bonaparte) 1826. Stilt Sandpiper. Playero Patilargo. NM, fc to c, transient, u winterer – 10 Sept
– 27 May (WJS). H, less often
165. Tryngites subruficollis (Vieillot) 1819. Buff-breasted Sandpiper. Playero Pradero. T, u to fc SL to 1000 m. Aug. – Oct., April – mid May. Co, O (seen often in grassy pastures).
Phalaropus tricolor (Vieillot) 1819. Wilson’s Phalarope. Falaropo de Wilson. T, fc – c, SL to 2500 m. Mid-July – Oct., late March – early June. WS, incl.
Family Recurvirostridae – follows Olson 1985.
168. Himantopus mexicanus (Müller) 1776. Black-necked Stilt. Candelero Americano. R/NM, fc – c, more seen in winter. Co (lagoons, estuaries) H.
Family Phoenicopteridae – follows Olson 1985.
169. Phoenicopterus ruber Linnaeus 1758. American Flamingo. Flamenco Americano. 1 vagrant record: Dalquest, 1947 (22 March) in the Tuxtla region (ca. 50 birds!). See Lowery and Dalquest 1951: 549. Windblown vagrants after a strong “norte?”
Family Stercorariidae – follows Olson 1985
Stercorarius parasiticus (Linnaeus)
1758. Parasitic Jaeger. Salteador Parásito. P, u winter visitor in
S. pomarinus (Temminck) 1815. Pomarine Jaegar. Salteador Pomarino. P, u winter visitor
Larus atricilla megalopterus Bruch 1855.
Laughing Gull. Gaviota
Reidora. R/NM, fc to c. wintering, u. in
summer, breeding on Isla Terrón in Los Tuxtlas, and on islets near
L. pipixcan Wagler 1831.
L. ridibundus Linnaeus 1766. Black-headed Gull. Gaviota Encapuchada. V 1 banded
specimen record off
L. minutus Linnaeus 1766. Little Gull.
Gaviota Minima. V. 1 first year immagure seen by WJS & SNG
L. dominicanus ………………… Kelp Gull. Gaviota Dorsinegra Sureña. V 1
sighting (WJS) at La Barra de Sontecomapan (an adult) on
L. delawarensis Ord 1815.
Ring-billed Gull. Gaviota
Piquianillado. NM, fc – c, late Aug. – 20
May. Co, H – including
179. L. argentatus smithsonianus Coues 1862. Herring Gull. Gaviota Plateada. NM, fc. – c, to northern Veracruz, u in SE. Aug. – May. In Los Tuxtlas we have only seen 1st winter and second winter in matures, no adults.
L. fuscus Linnaeus 1766.
Lesser Black-backed Gull. Gaviota Dorsinegra Menor. V 1
record Tuxtla coast (Playa de
L. marinus Linnaeus 1758. Great Black-backed Gull. Gaviota
Dorsinegra Mayor. V 1 record, at
L. hyperboreus Linnaeus 1758. Glaucous Gull. Gaviota
Blanca. V 1 record
Sterna nilotica aranea
Sterna caspia Pallas 1770. Caspian Tern.
Golandrina-marina Grande. NM, fc – c, Aug. – May – Co, often seen
Sterna m. maxima Boddaert 1783. Royal Tern.
Golandrina-marina Real. NM, fc – c,
Aug. – May. R, u (breeds on Isla Terrón
on Tuxtla coast) – March – April, and often again in Sept. – Oct. (WJS), but seen inland on
186. Sterna sandvicensis acuflavida Cabot 1847. R/M, fc – c Aug. – May, but permanent local population breeds on Isla Terrón off the Tuxtla coast March to May.
187. Sterna h. hirundo Linnaeus 1758. Common Tern. Golandrina-marina Comun. T. fc – c, Aug. - Nov., April – May. Rare winterer on Tuxtla coast.
188. Sterna forsteri Nuttall 1834. Forster’s Tern. Golandrina-marina de Forster. NM, fc to c. Aug. – May. Co, H.
Sterna a antillarum (Lesson) 1847. Least Tern.
Golandrina-marina Mínima. NM, r,
mainly transient on
189. Sterna a. anaethetus Scopoli 1769. Bridled Tern. Golandrina-marina Embridada. P, only records (37 sightings, WJS) off Tuxtla coast. More pelagic observations needed.
190. Sterna f. fuscata Linnaeus 1766. Sooty Tern. Golandrina-marina Oscura. P, fc visitor to Tuxtla coast 26 Sept. to 20 April (WJS = 150 sightings). First recorded for the Tuxtla coast by Winker, et. al. 1992: 705 of an observation of an immature (RJO) off Playa Jicacal and 2 dead adults on the beach at Jicacal (8 Dec., 27 Feb., and 1 March). Howell & Webb, 1995: 373 (map) did not record these records, although published by reputable ornithologists, not birdwatchers.
Anous stolidus (Linnaeus) 1758. Brown Noddy.
Golandrina-boba Café. P. V. r.
WJS had only 13 observations during his time
(1984-1991) fishing offshore on the Tuxtla coast, all between 30 June and 9
Sept. All were seen after tropical
storms or hurricanes. More pelagic
observations are needed off the
Rhynchops nigra Linnaeus 1758. Black Skimmer. Rayador Americano. Mainly NM, but breeding records in Papaloapan
marshes (fledglings seen by WJS, early Aug., 1998). fc – c.
Aug – May.
albifrons frontalis (Scopoli) 1769. White-Front Goose. Ganso Careto Mayor. NM, fc – c, winter visitor to
Anser coerulscens Linnaeus 1758. Snow Goose.
Ganso Blanco. NM, u from North
Branta canadensis leucoparia (Brandt)
1836. Canada Goose. Ganso
Canadiense. NM, u to
B. c. parvipes Cassin[B21] 1857 = the type of the subspecies remains the only record. Specimens are needed to verify other
occurrences in the State. Type is from
Dendrocygna autumnalis fulgens Friedmann 1947. Black-bellied Whistling Duck. Pijiji (in
D. bicolor helva Wetmore and Peters 1923. Fulvous Whistling Duck. Pijiji Canelo. R?, WJS had no summer (breeding) records
(June to Sept.) in the Tuxtla region.
Breeding records from State of
199. Cairina moschata (Linnaeus) 1758. Muscovy Duck. Pato Real. R, u. H (wooded), mainly coastal plain, up to 1200 m., lower in Tuxtlas.
Aix sponsa (Linnaeus) 1758. Wood Duck.
Pato Arcoiris. NM u to
Anas p. platyrhynchos (Linnaeus)
1758. Mallard. Pato de Collar. NM, V. r. Recorded
from Laguna Tamiahua (ARP, pers. comm, 1 ♂) and WJS (
Anas fulvigula maculosa
………………. Mottled Duck. Pato Tejano.
NM, u-r. winterer, at least as far south as Los
A. cyanoptera Vieillot 1816. Cinnamon Teal. Careta Castaña. NM, fc SL to 2500 m. Late Sept. – 28 April (WJS). U. in Los
Tuxtlas; no recent records (since 1991) on
204. A. discors Linnaeus 1766. Blue-winged Teal. Careta Aliazul. NM, fc – c SL to 2500 m.. Sept. – May. Co, H.
A. crecca carolinensis Gmelin 1789.
Green-winged Teal. Careta
Aliverde. NM, fc – u SL to 2500 m. Oct.
– 6 May. First recorded by Saunders in
Loetscher 1955: 23 from the Papaloapan Delta.
Linnaeus 1758. Northern
Pintail. Pato Golandrino Norteño. NM, f – c winterer to
208. A. strepera Linnaeus 1758. Gadwall. Pato Pinto. NM, fc – c in transit. fc to u in winter in the State SL to 2500 m. Co, H.
A. clypeata Linnaeus 1758. Northern Shoveler. Pato
Cucharón. NM, fc – c; T, fc – u, winter
visitor. Co, H,
Aythya valisneria (
A. americana Redhead. Pato Cabecirrojo. NM, fc South to
A. collaris (Donovan) 1809. Ring-necked Duck. Pato Piquianillado, Canate. NM, fc – c in North
A. affinis (Eyton) 1838.
Lesser Scaup. Pato-Boludo Menor.
NM, fc – c, SL to
Bucephala albeola (Linnaeus)
1758. Bufflehead. Pato Monje.
NM, r in extreme northern
Mergus cucullatus Linnaeus 1758. Hooded Merganser. Mergo de Caperuza. V. only 3 records in the State –
M. serrator Linnaeus 1758. Red-breasted Merganser. Mergo Copetón. NM, u south to Laguna Tamiahua (Howell &
Webb) but rare (and irregular?) V. in
O. jamaicensis rubida (
Columba livia Gmelin 1789.
Feral Pigeon, Rock Dove. Paloma
Domestica. Introduced from
220. C. f. fasciata Say 1823. Band-tailed Pigeon. R, fc in western mountains of the State. 1 vagrant record in Los Tuxtlas, most probably blown N across the isthmus by violent “surada”. See map in Howell & Webb 1995: 323.
C. cayennensis pallidicrissa Chubb
1910. Pale-vented Pigeon. Paloma
Vientre-blanco. SR, fc in Tuxtla Region;
very few winter records SL to
C. f. flavirostris Wagler 1831.
Red-billed Pigeon. Paloma Morada.
R, a, SL to
C. nigrirostris Sclater 1859.
Short-billed Pigeon. Paloma Piquinegra.
C. speciosa Gmelin 1789. Scaled Pigeon. Paloma Escamada. SR, HF, RF, now r due
to forest destruction; SL to
225. Ectopistes canadensis (Linnaeus) 1766. Passenger Pigeon Paloma Viejera. Extinct since 1900, formerly wintered in the State.
Zenaida macroura carolinensis (Linnaeus) 1766. Mourning Dove. Paloma Huilota. R, fc – c in western mountains; NM, fc – c elsewhere
in State, SL to 2500 m. WS in migration,
fc winterer to central
227. Zenaida a. asiatica (Linnaeus) 1758. White-winged Dove. Paloma Aliblanca. R in northern & NW Veracruz, NM, a on passage only? SL to 2500 m. WJS had no winter records in the Tuxtla region, but enormous transient flights on the coast: 28 Oct. – 10 Nov. & 3 April – 6 May (Wetmore, 1943) and 12 May (WJS). Coastal observations in fall and spring are needed to elucidate the alleged wintering status in the rest of the State.
Columbina inca (Lesson) 1847. Inca Dove.
Tórtola Colilarga. R, c – a, SL to
C. passerina pallescens (Baird) 1860.
Common Ground-Dove. Tórtola Comun.
SR, u, SL to
C. minuta interrupta (Griscom) 1929. Plain-breasted Ground-Dove. Tórtola Pechilisa. SR, fc, SL to 800 m., mostly in the lowlands.
The bulk of this species also withdraws
from the Tuxtla region, but we have a few winter records. See Winker et al. 1992: 705.
231. C. talpacoti rufipennis (Bonaparte) 1855. Ruddy Ground-Dove. Tórtola Rojiza, SR, fc in summer, r in winter (at least in Los Tuxtlas), SL to 1000 m. The same remarks given for C. passerina pallescens and C. minuta interrupta[p23] apply to this ground-dove. O.
Claravis pretiosa Ferrari-Pérez 1886. Blue
Ground-Dove. Tórtola Azul. SR, fc, SL to
C. mondetoura ochoterena Van Rossem
Ground-Dove. Tórtola Pechi-morada. R, u, 1200 –
Leptotila verreauxi fulviventris
a. L. v. angelica Bangs and Penard 1922. R N. Veracruz HF edge, S, oak woodland.
235. Leptotila plumbeiceps plumbeiceps Sclater and Salvin 1868. Gray-headed Dove. Paloma Cabecigris. R, fc, SL to 1000 m. RF, HF, S.
236. Geotrygon albifacies albifacies Sclater 1858. White-faced Quail-Dove. Paloma-Perdiz Cariblanca. R, now u, due to loss of habitat, 1000 to 2500 m. CF, only in western mountains.
Geotrygon carrikeri (Wetmore) 1942. Purplish-backed
Quail Dove. Paloma-Perdiz Morena. R, now uncommon due to habitat loss, 500 to
1300 m. Endemic to the Tuxtla mountains. RF, CF.
This is a good species, differentiated from G. lawrencei of
Geotrygon montana montana Linaeus
1758. Ruddy Quail-Dove. Paloma-Perdiz. R, fc to u due to
forest destruction, SL to
A. militaris cf. mexicanus Ridgway 1915.
Military Macaw. Guacamaya
Verde. Formerly resident in the western
241. Rhychopsitta pachyrhynchus (Swainson) 1827. Thick-billed Parrot. Cotorra-Serrana. Formerly R in the western mountains. Extinct since 1890’s!
Aratinga h. holochlora Sclater
1859. Green Parakeet. Perico Verde Mexicano. R, fc in northern &
243. A. nana astec Souance 1857. Aztec Parakeet (Olive-throated, AOU 1983). R, fc in entire State, except for high western mountains, SL to 1000 m. RF, S, O, H.
Bolborhynchus lineola (Cassin)
Barred Parakeet. Periquito
Barrado. R, u-r in Tuxtla mountains; no
recent records in western mountains (?), 750 to 2000 m. Now scarce due to forest destruction. (POF) Pine & evergreen
245. Pionopsitta h. haematotis (Sclater and Salvin) 1860. Brown-hooded Parrot. Loro Orejirrojo. R. formerly u. in Tuxtla RF; no records (WJS) since 1998. SL to 1000 m. Perhaps still exists in Uxpanapa RF (if any left). If still exists in extreme southeast, it must be considered endangered.
Pionus s. senilis (Spix) 1824.
White-crowned Parrot. Loro Coroniblanco.
R, fc, SL to
247. Amazona albifrons nana Miller 1905. White-fronted Parrot. Loro Frentiblanco. R, u, SL to 340 m. only from Tuxtlas SE into Uxpanapa region. RF, S, O.
A. viridigenalis (Cassin) 1853. Red-crowned Parrot. Loro Coronirrojo. R, fc northern & north-central
249. A. farinosa guatemalae (Sclater) 1860. Mealy Parrot (Blue-crowned Parrot). Loro Verde. Now R, u – r, only in Los Tuxtlas and Uxpanapa regions. SL to 750 m. Engangered due to habitat loss.
250. A. o. oratrix Ridgway 1887. Yellow-headed Parrot. Loro Cabeciamarillo. R. Now extinct (or close to extinction) in whole State, due to continuing cage-bird traffic and loss of habitat. We would appreciate communication of any recent confirmed sightings to: Pronatura – e-mail: …
251. A. a. autumnalis Linnaeus 1758. Yellow-cheeked (Red-lored, AOU) Parrot. Loro Cachete-Amarillo. R, still fc. RF, HF, S, H, O.
Tyto alba pratincola
(Bonaparte) 1838. Barn Owl. Lechuza de Campanario. R, fc – c; SL to
253. Otus flammeolus (Kaup) 1853. Flammulated Owl. Tecolote Flameado. NM? u. Probably winters in western mountains, certainly on eastern flank of Pico de Orizaba within the State limits. WJS has also seen it in winter at Puerto del Aire, within the State.
Otus kennicottii suttoni
Otus asio mccalli (Cassin) 1854. Eastern Screech-Owl. On 21 April, 1979, WJS was driving east from
El Ebano, S.L.P. , into
O. g. guatemalae (Sharpe) 1875. Vermiculated Screech-Owl. Tecolote Vermiculado. R, fc in southeastern
O. g. cassinii (Ridgway) 1878. R, fc in central and northern
O. t. trichopsis (Wagler) 1832. Whiskered Screech-Owl. Tecolote
Bigotudo. R, u? 2000 to
258. Lophastrix cristata stricklandi Sclater and Salvin 1859. Crested Owl. Buho Corniblanco. SR, u – r, SL to 1800 m. March – Nov. No winter records in Tuxtlas nor in Oaxaca (WJS). RF, HF.
259. Bubo virginanus mayensis Nelson 1901. Great Horned Owl. Buho Cornudo (Gran Duque). R. fc. in western mountains. 1500 to 3000 m. And since 1970’s in Los Tuxtlas = probable invader from south with the destruction of the RF, 150 to 400 m. WS, but most often seen in O, HF edge, and S.
260. Pulsatrix perspicillata saturata Ridgway 1904. Spectacled Owl. Buho de Anteojos. R, once fc, now r due to habitat destruction. Formerly RF, HF, S, now mainly in S in Los Tuxtlas.
261. Glaucidium gnoma gnoma Wagler 1832. Mountain Pygmy-Owl. Tecolotito Serrano. R, fc in western mountains of the State, 1500 to 3000 m. POF, and humid pine-evergreen oak forest.
262. G. griseiceps Sharpe 1875. Central American Pygmy-Owl. Tecolotito Centroamericano. R, u, only in southeast (Los Tuxtlas and Uxpanapa regions), SL to 1200 m. RF and edge.
263. G. brasilianum ridgwayi Sharpe 1875. Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl. Tecolotito Comun. R, fc – c, SL to 1, SL to 1400 m. RF edge, HF edge, S, O, H. Not in high mountains.
264. Speotyto cunicularia hypogaea (Bonaparte) 1825. Burrowing Owl. Buho Llanero. NM, u – fc, SL to 2000 m. Sept. – end March. O, S edge, Co (especially sand dunes).
265. Ciccaba virgata centralis Griscom 1929. Mottled Wood-Owl. Buho Cafe. R, fc – c, SL to 2500 m. RF and edge, HF and edge, S, POF in western mountains
266. C. nigrolineata Sclater 1859. Black-and-White Owl. Buho Blanquinegro. R. Now u – rare due to habitat destruction, SL to 1200 m. RF, HF, “cafetales[p24]”, S.
267. Strix varia sartorii (Ridgway) 1873. Barred Owl. Buho Barrado. R. u. in western mountains. Humid & arid POF, and fir forest. Not often reported due to the elevations where it lives: 2500 – 3000 ms.
268. Asio otus wilsonianus (Lesson) 1830. Long-eared Owl. Buho-Cornudo Caricafe. NM, r. Recorded from the southeastern slope of Pico de Orizaba. POF.
269. A. stygius robustus Kelso 1934. Stygian Owl. Buho-Cornudo Oscuro. R, r in western mountains, in CF (Mirador of Sartorius). WJS had 2 sound records on Volcan Santa Marta, also in CF.
A. clamator forbesii (Lowery and
Dalquest) 1951. Striped
Owl. Buho-Coronudo Cariblanco. R, fc, SL to
A. f. flammeus (Pontoppidan) 1763. Short-eared Owl. Buho Orejicorto. NM, r –u, an irregular visitor south to
272. Aegolius a. acadicus (Gmelin) 1789. Northern Saw-whet Owl. Tecolote-abetero Norteño. R, u in western mountains, 2000 to 3000 m. Semi-humid to humid POF, & fir forest.
Chordeiles acutipennis texensis
Chordeiles a. littoralis Brodkorb
1940. SR, breeds locally (Tuxtlas,
274. C. minor minor (Forster) 1771.
Common Night-Hawk. Chotacabras Mayor. T, fc, Aug. – Nov., and March to May. Aerial[p25] overflights. 3 migratory North
American ssp. have been identified in
b. C. m. chapmani Coues 1888. T
c. C. m. howellii Oberholser 1914. T
d. C. m. neotropicalis Selander and Alvarez 1955. SR, u – arrives March, early April, and leaves after breeding in August.
275. Nyctidromus albicollis merrilli Sonnet 1888. Pauraque. Tapacaminos Picuyo. NM, fc. O. More field studies are needed to determine the arrival/departure dates and altitudinal limits of this migrant subspecies.
a. N. a. yucatanensis Nelson 1901. R, fc. breeds March – August. This ssp. is seen all year, in O. More birds are seen and heard between Sept. and March when northern migrants are present.
Phalaenoptila nuttallii centralis
277. Caprimulgus carolinensis Gmelin 1789. Chuck-Will’s-Widow. Tapacaminos Carolinense. NM, fc – c, SL to 1500 m. Late Aug. – early Nov., and end Feb. – early May. RF, HF, S, and O, feeding.
278. C. salvini Hartert 1892. Tawny-collared Night-Jar. Tapacaminos Ticuér. R, fc to c, SL to 500 m. Howell and Webb 1995: 377, map does not show the occurrence of this species in Los Tuxtlas, from whence it was reported by Winker et al. 1992: 707, who recorded calling birds and a specimen (a road kill). WJS had at least 50 episodes of listening to calling birds, all from late Jan. – Aug., and examined in the hand 2 road kills. O.
C. r. ridgwayi Nelson 1897.
Buff-collared Nightjar. Tapacaminos Presta-Me-Tu-Cuchillo. R, fc, 500 to
C. maculicaudus (
282. C. arizinoae Brewster 1881. Mexican Whip-Poor-Will. Tapacaminos Cuerporruin. . R, fc. In the western mountains 1400 to 3000 m. Comes down-slope in winter. Pine forest, POF, and oak woodlands. WJS thinks it better to regard this form as a full species, as its calls are quite separate from C. vociferus, although it is obviously related to the eastern bird. DNA studies may help to resolve this question. Its general montane distribution is also note-worthy.
283. Nyctibius griseus mexicanus Nelson 1900. Common Potoo. Biemparado Comun. R, fc, RF, edge; HF, edge; O.
C. rutilus griseifrons Nelson 1900.
Chestnut-collared Swift. Vencejo
Cuellicastano. R, fc in western mountains,
breeding April – July; also may breed in Los Tuxtlas. WJS has seen fall flights over
286. Streptoprocne zonaris mexicana Ridgway 1910. White-collared Swift. Vencejo Cuelliblanco. R, fc. WS, O. Breeds throughout State wherever caves behind large waterfalls occur – April – July. Winter flights erratic and irregular, often seen in flocks of many hundreds.
287. Chaetura v. vauxi (Townsend) 1839. Vaux’s Swift. Vencejo de Vaux. NM/T, fc – c on passage – winters in southern half of the State. Aerial, mostly seen in highlands. This ssp. Is known from specimens. T mid-Sept. – October and April – mid-May, but wintering in small flocks: Sept. – May.
C. v. tamaulipensis Sutton 1941.
This race presumably breeds in the Sierra Madre in extreme western
b. C. v. richmondi Ridgway 1910. This race has bred in hollow trees on Volcan Santa Marta and on Vol. San Martín in April & May (WJS observations in 1970’s). The form is recognizable in the field: it is much darker overall than the other races and arrives (in Los Tuxtlas, at least) after most of the migratory forms have left the area. More field work is needed (as always!) on the species in the State. Aerial, mostly highlands.
C. pelagica (Linnaeus) 1758.l Chimney Swift. Vencejo de Chimenea. T, fc – c., mid-March to 15 May (WJS), but
extremely rare in fall (WJS = 2 records
in violent Nortes both in October, on Tuxtla coast). The bulk of the population crosses the Gulf
Aeronautes saxatalis nigrior Dickey and Van Rossem 1928. White-throated Swift. Vencejo Gortiblanco. T?
Seen only over or near mountains?
It was not shown by Howell and Webb 1995: 388 as occurring in
a. A. s. saxatilis Woodhouse 1853. R In western mountains.
Panyptila cayennensis Gmelin 1789.
Lesser Swallow-tailed Swift. R,
u. in Los Tuxtlas (WJS) – WJS & SH had 2 sightings (on
Order Trochiliformes (ordo novus) incertae sedis
WJS believes it is high time to separate the hummingbirds from the swifts, upon the firm basis of morphology. The short, twisted humerus, the short, strong radius and ulna, and the very long, fused carpometarcapus are unique to this family. And they differ widely from the same bones in the Apodidae. The only real resemblance between Trochilids and Apodids is in the similar small feet, upon which item they were lumped together by Fürbringer and Gado over 100 years ago, and there they have remained, fossilized in print, until now! Actually, the swifts are more closely related to the Caprimulgids, which also have very small feet and similar, wide, insect-trapping mouths. WJS takes full responsibility for thus separating these two very different Taxa. He ffels it necessary to do so, as, in his opinion (an that of other ornithologists), no linear sequence of Taxa can truly show evolutionary relationships. So he has raised an order, but he follows Olson 1985, in considering it of uncertain place in the linear sequence. Incidentally, the hummingbirds are the only birds which can fly backwards! (Due to their unique wing-bone structure.)
291. Phaethornis superciliosus veraecrucis Ridgway 1910. Long-tailed Hermit. Ermitaño Colilargo. R, still fc. RF, CF, S (mangroves and swamp forest). Only in Los Tuxtlas and Uxpanapa now? SL to 1500 m.
292. Phaethornis longuemareus adolphi Gould 1857. Little Hermit. Ermitaño Chico. R, now scarce. RF & edge, CF only in Los Tuxtlas & Uxpanapa regions? SL to 1500 m.
Campylopterus c. curvipennis (Deppe) 1830.
Wedge-tailed Sabrewing. Fandanguero Colicuña. R, fc – c.
Western foot-hills of mountains in
C. excellens (Wetmore) 1941. Long-tailed
Sabrewing. Fandanguero Colilargo. R, fc.
Endemic to S.E. Veracruz, Los Tuxtlas and Uxpanapa (Pronatura)
regions. Two extralimital records: 1 specimen collected near Rizo de Oro in W.
Chiapas; AMNH (WJS) and 1 sighting in
Isthmian Oaxaca by Binford (1989: 142)
at “28 road miles N. Matias Romero,
Campylopterus h. hemileucurus (Deppe) 1830.
Violet Sabrewing. Fandanguero Colilargo. R, fc, SL to 1300 m on Tuxtla
mountains; in summer above 500 m, going downslope in winter (October – end
Feb.), where commonly seen in RF edge, HF ege, H, S & O.
Florisuga m. mellivora (Linnaeus) 1758. White-necked Jacobin. Jacobino
u. Population in Los Tuxtlas withdraws
in winter – one winter record: 6 Jan. at
the UNAM Biological Station (Winker, et
al., 1992: 707). Earliest arrival
date is 28 Feb (ibid.), but WJS had 2
March. The latest date seen in Fall was
mid-October on the
297. Colibri t. thalassinus (Swainson) 1827. Green Violet-Ear. Colibri Orejivioleta. SR, fc in western mountains and now on Sierra de Los Tuxtlas – POF, montane RF, CF. Now endangered due to loss of habitat. April – early Nov. in Los Tuxtlas. Please explain how to tell ♂ from ♀ by sight (See Howell & Webb 1995: 399, under “Habits”). Both sexes are similar.
298. Colibri prevostii prevostii (Lesson) 1832. Green-breasted Mango. Mango Pechiverde. SR, fc mid-Feb. – mid-September. No winter records in Los Tuxtlas (WJS). Not in most of extreme north of the State. SL to 1300 m. in Los Tuxtlas. O, H, RF edge, HF edge, S edge. We follow A. R. Phillips 1966: 104 and pers. comm. in not recognizing the AOU sponsored “Anthracothorax” and “Lampornis.”
299. Colibri amethystinus henricus (Lesson and DeLattre) 1839. Amethyst-throated Hummingbird. Colibri Gorjiamatista. SR, fc. in western mountains, r in the Sierra de Los Tuxtlas, where it arrives[p26] 21 March 1992 (Patricia Escalante with students & WJS on Volcán San Martín) to 26 August, 1962 (spec. by R. F. Andrle, at 1300 m, recorded in Andrle 1967: 183), again at 1300 m. CF, upper montane RF, POF
300. Colibri c. clemenciae (Lesson) 1830. Blue-throated Hummingbird. Colibri Gorjiazul. SR, fc in western mountains of the State – March to early October, the bulk (or all?) of the population withdraws to the SE in winter. Does not occur in Los Tuxtlas. 1800 to 2500 m.
301. Abeillia abeillei abeillei (Lesson and DeLattre) 1839. Emerald-chinned Hummingbird. Barbi e[p27]smeralda. Formerly R. in western mountains of the State. No recent records? Humid POF and HF with pines. TBL. 1000 to 2500 m.
Lophornis helenae (DeLaetre) 1843. Black-crested Coquette.
Coqueta Crestinegra. R,
fc. SL to
Chlorostilbon c. canivetii (Lesson)
1837. Canivet’s Emerald. Esmeralda de Canivet. R, fc. – c. SL –
304. Cynanthus l. latirostris Swainson 1827. Broad-billed Hummingbird. Colibri Piquiancho. R, fc in western mountains, mainly above 900 m. Know from above Xalapa and S. slope of Pico de Orizaba. Arid to semi-humid S and O.
305. Hylocharis eliciae (Bourcler et Mulsant) 1846. Blue-throated Goldentail. Zafiro Gorjiazul. SR, u April to Sept. SL to 1000 m. only in Los Tuxtlas and Uxpanapa regions. RF, S, O with flowers.
Hylocharis l. leucotis (Vieillot) 1818. White-eared Hummingbird. Colibri
Orejiblanco. R, fc –c. Western mountains (Cofre de Perote, Las
Vigas, E. slope of Pico de Orizabo – 1200 –
307. Amazilia c. candida (Bourcier & Mulsant) 1846. White-Bellied Emerald. Esmeralda Vientre-Blanca. R? c (is SR in Los Tuxtlas; bulk of population withdraws during Aug. – Sept. Very few winter records). RF edge, HF edge, S, O. SL to 1500 m.
A. b. beryllina (Deppe) 1830.
Berylline Hummingbird. Colibri de Berilo. R, fc - c.
In western mountains – Perote to E. slope of
Pico de Orizaba – 600 to
A. tzacatl tzacatl (De
A. violiceps cf. ellioti (Berlepsch) 1889. Violet-crowned Hummingbird. Colibri Coronivioleta. V. 1
specimen record from near
311. A. yucatanensis cerviniventris (Gould) 1856. Buff-bellied Hummingbird. Colibri Vientre-Canelo. R, fc – c. SL to 1200 m. throughout the State except in high western mountains Humid to arid HF, RF edge, S, O. Lamb specimens in Aug. near Coyame, many WJS & SH observations & Kevin Winker.
A. cyanocephala ???? Azure-crowned Hummingbird. Colibri Coroniazul. R, fc – c. S.L
313. Eupherusa eximia nelsoni Ridgway 1910. Stripe-tailed Hummingbird. Colibri Colirrayado. R? u, from Motzorongo area S.E. to Uxpanapa region (Pronatura) and SR, r, in Los Tuxtlas in RF, CF (WJS 28 sightings: late March – August). Not shown by Howell & Webb 1995: 415, map. 600 to 1800 m.
Heliomaster longirostris pallidiceps Gould 1861.
Long-billed Starthroat. Picolargo
Coroniazul. R fc from Los Tuxtlas S.E.,
formerly? west to Potrero Viejo (1 spec.
316. Lamprolaima r. rhami (Lesson) 1833. Garnet-throated Hummingbird. Colibri Alicastaño. R u – fc, may withdraw from highest areas in winter. 1200 – 3000 m. in the western mountains. HF and humid pine-evergreen forest, O, POF, S (oaks).
317. Tilmatura d. dupontii (Lesson) 1832. Sparkling-tailed Woodstar. Colibri Colipinto. R. u-fc. Mountains from Cofre de Perote south to eastern slope of Pico de Orizaba. 750 – 2500 m. Altitudinal migrant, often descending to coastal plain in winter. HF, edge, S, O, POF.
Calothorax eliza (Lesson and DeLattre)
1839. Mexican Sheartail. Tijereta
Yucateca. R, u. A disjunct population
occurs in central
Calothorax lucifer (Swainson) 1827.
Lucifer Hummingbird. Tijereta
Norteña. NM, V, only one sure record – 1
♂ at Potrero Viejo (near Córdoba),
Archilochus colubris (Linnaeus) 1758. Ruby-Throated Hummingbird. Colibri Gorjirubi. T, fc – c.
Aug. – Oct. and mid-Feb.: the
range map on p. 424
(Howell & Webb?) is not correct. We
have no winter records in the Tuxtlas or in the Uxpanapa region. Nor did WJS have winter records in Isthmian
Oaxaca except on the Pacific slope (see Schaldach, Escalante, & Winker
1997: 110). Apparently the species
winters only on the Pacific coast, from South Sinaloa southeast to
A. alexandri (Bourcier et Mulsant)
1846. Black-Chinned Hummingbird. Colibri Barbinegro. V. 1 spec. record from Las Vigas,
322. Selasphorus p. platycercus (Lesson and Delattre) 1839. Broad-tailed Hummingbird. Zumbador Coliancho. R & NM, fc –c, only in western mountains and foothills, pine forest & POF, O.
S. heloisa (Lesson and DeLattre)
1839. Bumblebee Hummingbird. Zumbador
Mexicano. R, !? Endemic to
S. rufus (Gmelin) 1788. Rufous Hummingbird. Zumbador Rufo. V. 2 records – 1 spec. taken by Sartorius at
Hacienda Mirador in 19th century and 1 live bird (♂) examined
in the hand on the beach at La Barra de Sontecomapan by S.N.G. Howell on
Galbula melanogenia ruficauda Sclater 1853.
Rufous-tailed Jacamar. Jacamar
probably now extinct in Los Tuxtlas and near extinction or highly endangered in
the Uxpanapa region, all due to habitat destruction. WJS’ last sighting in Los Tuxtlas was in
Trogon melanocephalus melanocephalus
Gould 1835. Black-headed Trogon.
Trogon Cabecinegro. SL – 1300 m.
R, now only fc. in Los Tuxtlas. Status
327. T. violaceus sallaei Bonaparte 1856. Nec. T. v. braccatus Cabanis & Heine 1863 = AOU. Violaceous Trogon. Trogon Violaceo. R, now u to fc. RF, HF, S esp. mangroves & swamp forest. SL to 1300 m. in Los Tuxlas, to 1800 m. elsewhere in the State.
328. T. m. mexicanus Swainson 1827. Mountain Trogon. Trogon Mexicano (or Serrano). R, fc in western mountains: 1200 – 3500 m. POF and pine-evergreen forest, oak woodland.
T. collaris xalapensis Dubus 1845, nec T. collaris puella Gould
1845=AOU. (See Phillips 1966: 105) Collared
Trogon Collarejo. R, now
less common in the State due to loss of habitat. SL to 600 m. on coastal plain, but only in
forest: HF, RF, S. T. c. puella
is the correct name for the Pacific coast ssp. From
T. elegans ambiguus Gould 1835. Elegant Trogon. Trogon Elegante. R, fc to u only in western mountains =
near SL (in extreme
331. T. m. massena Gould 1838. Slaty-tailed Trogon. Trogon Colioscuro. R only in Tuxtla and Uxpanapa regions. Now rare & endangered due to habitat loss. RF.
332. Hylomanes m. momotula Lichenstein 1839. Tody Motmot. Momoto Enano. R. now rare & endangered in Los Tuxtlas and Uxpanapa regions, due to habitat loss and consequent fragmentation of the remaining RF. WJS has very few recent records of this species.
Momotus momota lessonii Lesson 1842.
Blue-crowned Motmot. Momoto
Coroniazul. R fc to c, southern
M. m. coeruliceps (Gould) 1836.
R. fc – c in northern
Eumomota s. superciliosa (Sandbach) 1837. Turquoise-browed Motmot. Momoto Cejiturquesa. 1 ancient record. Formerly resident at Uvero = present-day Lerdo de Tejada on
Electron carinatum (DuBus) 1847.
Keel-billed Motmot. Momoto
Piquiaplanado. Formerly R, r in SE; now
extinct? 1 specimen record from the Rio
Solosuchil 30 kms SSE of Jesús Carranza,
Bucco macrorhynchus hyperrhynchus Sclater 1855.
White-necked Puffbird. Buco
Collarejo. R, r? in extreme southeastern
Veracruz (Uxpanapa region) - WJS & his field party saw a presumed pair
sitting on a dead tree beside the road from the Trans-Isthmus Highway to
Suchilapa Veracruz (about 3 kms. SW of Suchilapa), on
Family Halcyonidae = nec Alcedinidae AOU et auct.
Follows Olson 1985, and European authors.
337. Ceryle alcyon (Linnaeus) 1758. Belted Kingfisher. Martín-Pescador Norteno. NM, fc – c. late Aug. – 13 May (WJS). H, especially rivers & lake shores, but also along shores & mangroves of coastal lagoons. SL to 3000 m.
338. Ceryle torquata (Linnaeus) 1766. Ringed Kingfisher. Martín-Pescador Collarejo. R, fc – c in all water bodies in the State, including coastal lagoons, rivers, and lakes. SL to 1500 m.
Ceryle amazona mexicana Brodkorb 1940.
Amazon Kingfisher. Martín-Pescador
Amazona. R, u –
fc, SL to
341. Ceryle aenea stictoptera (Ridgway) 1884. Pygmy Kingfisher. Martín-Pescador Enano. R, now u to r, due to habitat destruction. In Los Tuxtlas now confined to mangroves and swamp forest in the lagoons and small rivers. Formerly was fc in arroyos in RF, but the lowland RF has been decimated in this region.
342. Aulacorhynchus p. prasinus (Gould) 1834. Emerald Toucanet. Tucaneta Verde. R, fc in the western mountains – 1500 – 3000 m. This species is an altitudinal migrant, found at lower levels on the mountains to the foothills in winter. POF, pine forest, CF in summer, to S in winter.
A. p. warneri Winker 1997.
This ssp. is also an altitudinal migrant, coming down slope to at least
Pteroglossus t. torquatus (Gmelin) 1788. Collared Aracari. Tucancillo
Collarejo. R, fc. SL to
344. Ramphastos s. sulfuratus Lesson 1830. Keel-Billed Toucan. fc. to c. Now more common in Los Tuxtlas than before the destruction of the RF. RF edge, second-growth, O with scattered trees.
345. Colaptes auratus mexicanus Swainson 1827. Northern Flicker. Carpintero Collarejo. R, u. only Valle de Orizaba – not shown by range map in Howell & Webb 1995: 460 except the above. Other sightings are needed to help elucidate the species’ distribution in the State. WJS is sure he observed it just under the plateau edge in POF near El Puerto del Aire in Jan., 1981.
Piculus aeruginosus (Malherbe) 1862. Bronze-winged Woodpecker. Carpintero Alibronceado. R, fc, northern
P. rubiginosus yucatanensis (Cabot)
1844. Golden-olive Woodpecker. Carpintero Olivaceo. R, fc, southern
348. Celeus castaneus (Wagler) 1829. Chestnut-colored Woodpecker. Carpintero Castano. R, u. now only in Los Tuxtlas and Uxpanapa regions (?). Endangered in both regions due to habitat loss. RF, CF. 150 – 1000 m.
Dryocopus lineatus similis (Lesson) 1847. Lineated Woodpecker. Carpintero
Lineado. R, fc. SL –
Melanerpes f. formicivorus (Swainson)
1827. Acorn Woodpecker. Carpintero Arlequin. R, fc – c in whole State SL to 900 m. Mainly found in
351. M. aurifrons veraecrucis (Nelson) 1900. Golden-fronted Woodpecker. Carpintero Frentidorado. R, fc – c in the whole State, SL to 2500 m. WS, HF edge, RF edge, O, S, even H). It is our most common woodpecker.
352. M. pucherani perileucus Todd 1910. Black-cheeked Woodpecker Carpintero Cachetinegro. R, u – fc only in Los Tuxtlas and Uxpanapa Regions. RF and edge, “cafetales”, S = mangroves & swamp forest.
353. Sphyrapicus v. varius (Linnaeus) 1766. Yellow-bellied Sapsucker. Yellow-bellied Sapsucker. Carpintero Vientre-amarillo. NM, fc – c. mid-Sept. – 27 April (WJS). HF and edge, RF and edge, CF, POF, pine-evergreen forest, S, O. SL to 3500 m. on Cofre de Perote.
Veniliornis fumigatus oleagineus
(Reichenbach) 1854. Smoky-brown
Woodpecker. Carpintero Café. R, fc.
SL to 1500 m. HF, S (includes
mangroves and swamp forest). This race
is in North Veracruz South to
a. V. f. sanguinolentus (Sclater) 1859. This ssp. is only in Southern & S.E. Veracruz. R, now u, due to forest destruction. SL – 1300 m. RF and edge, CF, S (includes mangroves & swamp forest), occasionally seen in O. (with trees).
355. Picoides villosus jardinii (Malherbe) 1845. Hairy Woodpecker. Carpintero-Velloso Mayor. R, fc in western mountains – 100 – 3500 m. POF, pine-evergreen forest, CF. Moves down-slope in winter to HF in the foothills – Nov. – March.
P. scalaris scalaris (Wagler) 1829. Ladder-backed Woodpecker. Carpintero
Listado. R, fc – c. SL –
P. stricklandi stricklandi (Malherbe)
1845. Strickland's Woodpecker. Carpintero de Strickland. R, fc – c only in mountains of central
358. Campephilus g. guatemalensis (Hartlaub) 1844. Pale-Billed Woodpecker. Carpintero Piquiclaro. R, u – fc. SL to 2000 m. RF, HF, S, often nesting in dead standing trees in O.
359. Dendrocincla a. anabatina Sclater 1859. Tawny-winged Woodcreeper. Trepatroncos Alileonado. R, formerly f – c, now u – fc due to habitat loss. Only in Los Tuxtlas and Uxpanapa regions. RF, S (mangroves and swamp forest). SL to 800 m.
D. h. homochroa Sclater 18?9. Ruddy Woodcreeper. Trepatrancos Rojizo. R. u – fc formerly from Playa Vicente east to
the Uxpanapa region and in Los Tuxtlas – 5 sightings: 1 by J.C. Arvin, Mexican Birds Newsletter, Vol.I, no. 1, 1972: ?? at the UNAM Biological Station, and 4 WJS sightings of birds
following army ant columns (Eciton
burchellii) on the
Sittasomus griseicapillus sylvioides LaFresnaye 1850. Olivaceous Woodcreeper. Trepatroncos Olivaceo. R, fc. near SL – 1300 m. in
362. Glyphorhynchus spirurus pectoralis Sclater & Salvin 1860. Wedge-billed Woodcreeper. Trepatroncos Piquicuña. R, formerly fc, now less common with humid forest destruction. WJS has it on his RED LIST as endangered in Los Tuxtlas and Uxpanapa regions. RF, SL to 700 m. in Los Tuxtlas (WJS).
363. Xiphocolaptes promeropirhynchus sclateri Ridgway 1890. Strong-billed Woodcreeper. Trepatroncos Gigante. R, u – fc. 1500 – 3000 m. only in the western mountains. POF, pine forest (arid), HF.
364. Xiphorhynchus flavigaster ascensor Wetmore & Sarks 1962. Ivory-billed Woodcreeper. Trepatroncos Piquiclaro. R, fc – c. SL – 1500 m. (to 1300 m. in Los Tuxtlas). RF and edge, HF, S (including mangroves and swamp forest). This ssp. only in Los Tuxtlas and Uxpanapa regions..
X. f. saltuarius Wetmore 1942. This ssp. occurs only in northern to central
365. Xiphorhynchus e. erythropygius (Sclater) 1859. Spotted Woodcreeper. Trepatroncos Manchado. R, c – fc; 600 to 2200 m. HF, including CF.
366. Dendrocincla certhia sancti-thomae (Lafresnaye) 1852. Barred Woodcreeper. Trepatroncos Barrado. R, now u and perhaps endangered. Only in the Presidio-Tezonapa, Los Tuxtlas, and Uxpanapa regions HF, RF, S. SL to 1500 m.
Lepidocolaptes l. leucogaster (Swainson)
Woodcreeper. Trepatroncos Blanquirrayado. R, r – u. only in
western mountains in W. central
368. L. souleyettii insignis (Nelson) 1897. Streak-headed Woodcreeper. Trepatroncos Coronirrayado. R, still fc. SL to 1500 m. (to 1300 m. in Los Tuxtlas). HF, RF, S, including mangroves and swamp forest).
369. L. a. affinis (LaFresnaye) 1839. Spot-crowned Woodcreeper. Trepatroncos Coroni- manchado. R, now u – fc, due to forest destruction. 1000 – 2500 m. in western mountains, 900 – 1300 m. in Los Tuxtlas, where it is an altitudinal migrant, coming down-slope as low as 600 m. in severe “nortes.” Humid to semi-arid pine to POF, CF, HF, RF.
Synallaxis e. erythrothorax Sclater
1855. Rufous-breasted Spinetail. Guitio Pechirrufo. R. fc – c., southern
371. Anabacerthia v. variegaticeps (Sclater) 1857. Spectacled Foliage-Gleaner. Breñero Cejudo. R, u – fc. Altitudunal migrant – 900 to 1300 m. in Los Tuxtlas in summer, downslope to 500 m. in winter “nortes.” In western mountains 1000 – 2000 m. in summer, downslope in winter to 900 m. below Fortín (WJS) and to 500 m. near Xico (WJS). Montane HF and RF, CF, down to perhaps 400 m. (H & W. 1995: 464).
A. ochrolaemus cervinigularis (Sclater)
1857. Buff-throated Foliage-gleaner. Breñero Gorjipálido. R, u to fc, only in southern
373. Automolus r. rubiginosus (Sclater) 1857. Ruddy Foliage-gleaner. Breñero Rojizo. R, fc in western mountains – 500 – 1800 m. HF and humid pine and evergreen forest. WJS had 3 sightings of this species in upper montane RF and CF, all during the period 1976 – 1978. These habitats were destroyed by cattlemen in the 1980’s and WJS fears it is now extinct in Los Tuxtlas.
Xenops minutus mexicanus (Sclater) 1857.
Plain Xenops. Picolezna Sencillo. R. formerly fc, now
u. SL to
375. Sclerurus m. mexicanus (Sclater) 1857. Tawny-throated Leaftosser. Hojarasquero Gorjirrufo. R, fc, only in the western mountains. Ca. 900 – 1800 m. HF. Probably now more uncommmon with loss of habitat.
S. g. guatemalensis (Hartlaub)
1844. Scaly-throated Leaftosser. Hojaraasquero Oscuro.
R, only in extreme S.E. = 2 specimens known: a ♀, 30 kms. south-southeast of Jesús
Carranza on the Chalchijapan River (see Lowery & Dalquest 1951: 602) on 12
May 1949, and a ♀ specimen collected by WJS on 26 April, 1962 in RF at 4
kms. southwest of Suchilapa, in
Family Thamnophilidae, nec Formacariidae auctorem et AOU.
377. Taraba major melanocrissus (Sclater) 1860. Great Antshrike. Batará Mayor. R. now u, only in Los Tuxtlas and Uxpanapa regions. RF edge, second-growth (“acahual”), O. The type specimen of this subspecies (a ♀) was collected by A. Boucard near Sontecomapan in 1856. SL to 750 m.
378. Thamnophilus doliatus intermedius Ridgway 1888. Barred Antshrike. Batará Barrada. R, fc. S, including swamp forest, RF edge & acahual, HF edge, H, marshes with trees & thickets.
Thamnistes a. anabatinus Sclater &
Salvus 1860. Russet Antshrike. Batara Café.
R, r. only in extreme S.E. (WJS – two sightings at 4 kms. southwest of
380. Microrhopias quixensis boucardi (Sclater) 1868. Dot-winged Antwren. Hormiguerito Alimanchado. R, now u. only in S.E. = Playa Vicente to Uxpanapa region. WJS had sightings at 4 kms. southwest of Suchilapa in April, 1962. New record – WJS had sightings of this unmistakable species in Los Tuxtlas = 4 definite observations of this species at close range = 6 – 12 m. It was only in virgin RF. WJS fears it may be extinct here now due to habitat loss. SL to 750 m.
Cercomacra tyrannina crepera Bangs 1901.
Dusky Antbird. Hormiguero Negruzco. R, u in
Tuxtlas, from whence first recorded by Winker et al, 1992: 707, 2 birds netted
and examined in the hand, and identified by the description (still valid) in
Blake 1953, 4th impression 1963: 320. WJS had at least 10 observations of this
species in Los Tuxtlas, 1970’s to 1990’s.
In rest of State known only from Presidio (spec.) breeding, MLZ and from
the Uxpanapa region (Pronatura observations, pers. comm. to WJS). More records needed, esp. specimens, before
they, too, become extinct due to habitat loss.
Formicarius m. moniliger Sclater 1857.
Mexican Antthrush. Hormiguero Gallito. R,
formerly fc, now u due to habitat loss. SL
Grallaria guatimalensis mexicana Sclater 1861.
Hormiguero-cholino Escamoso. R, now u. In western
mountains and foothills up to
Family Tyrannidae = 62 species
Ornithion s. semiflavum Sclater &
Salvin 1860. Yellow-bellied Tyrannulet. Mosquerito Vientre-Amarillo. SR, now u., near SL to 1300 m. in Los
Tuxtlas. Arrives 27 Feb. and March and
almost the whole breeding population withdraws during late Aug. – mid-Sept.,
latest sighting in fall: 2 Nov. WJS had only 3 winter records:
385. Camptostoma i. imberbe Sclater 1857. Northern Beardless-Tyrannulet. Mosquerito Lampino Norteño. R fc – c, throughout the State, more seen in winter when more northern birds arrive. Arid to humid S, O with trees and shrubs.
Myiopagus viridicata placens (Sclater)
1859. Greenish Elaenia. Elenia Verdosa. SR, fc. in Tuxtlas = late February – late
October. 1 definite winter record = a
specimen taken by Carriker on
387. Elaenia flavogaster saturata Brodkorb 1943, nec E. f. subpagana Salvin & Sclater 1860. Yellow-bellied Elaenia. Elenia Vientre-Amarillo. SR, fc. April – Sept. or early October. WJS had only 3 winter records in Los Tuxtlas. More field studies are needed to confirm this behaviour pattern in other areas of the State. Atlantic coast only.
388. Mionectes oleagineus assimilis Sclater 1859. Ochre-bellied Flycatcher. Mosquero Vientre-Ocre. R, fc. SL to 1600 m, to 1300 in Tuxtlas. RF, HF, S. Now less common in Tuxtlas and Uxpanapa regions due to habitat loss.
Leptopogon amaurocephalus pileatus Cabanis
1865. Sepia-capped Flycatcher. Mosquero Gorripardo. R, now uncommon due to habitat loss. Only in southern
Oncostoma cinereigulare (Sclater)
Todirostrum sylvia schistaceiceps Sclater
1859. Slate-headed Tody-Flycatcher. Espatulilla Cabecigris. R, u.
RF edge, S, only in Los Tuxtlas and Uxpanapa regions (
392. T. cinereum virididorsale Parkes 1976. Common Tody Flycatcher. Espatulilla Comun. R, u – fc. O, S, SL to 1000m. More common on interior coastal plain.
Rhynchocyclus b. brevirostris (Cabanis)
1847. Eye-ringed Flatbill. Picoplano
de Anteojos. R, now u – r due ot habitat
in the Motzorongo-Tezonapa region; u – r and endangered in Los Tuxtlas and Uxpanapa
regions, again due to habitat loss. RF,
S, SL –
Tolmomyias sulphurescens cinereiceps
(Sclater) 1859. Yellow-olive Flycatcher. Picoplano
Ojiblanco. R, now u – fc from SL –
Platyrinchus cancrominus Sclater &
Salvin 1860. Stub-tailed Flycatcher. Picoplano Ojiblanco. R, u – r from SL to 1300 m. HF, RF.
Not seen often until calling:
March – August. S.E.
Onychorhynchus coronatus mexicanus Sclater
1857. Royal Flycatcher. Mosquero Real. R, now u – r due to habitat loss. SL to 1300 m.
RF. only S.E.
Myiobius s. sulphureipygius (Sclater) 1857. Sulphur-rumped Flycatcher. Mosquerito
Rabadilla-Amarillo. R. now u – r. SL to
398. Mitrephanes p. phaeocercus (Sclater) 1859. Tufted Flycatcher. Mosquero Penachudo. R, fc. 1200 – 3000 m. Humid POF, S,O. Altitudinal migrant in winter, descending as low as Fortín (WJS).
Contopus borealis (Swainson) 1831. Olive-sided Flycatcher. Pibí Boreal. NM, u – r, winter resident only in Los
Tuxtlas? POF, semi-deciduous S. formerly
900 – 1200 m, but POF now completely (?) destroyed in the Tuxtlas so its main
wintering habitat must be considered as lost.
May still occur South of the
400. Contopus musicus Swainson 1827. nec. C. pertinax Cabanis & Heine 1859, contra AOU et auct. Greater Pewee. Pibí Mayor. R, fc in western mountains. 750 – 3000 m. POF, HF, S. Altitudinal migrant in winter to lower elevations. V in Los Tuxtlas SL to 800 m., most probably wind blown from the south across the Isthmus: 6 records (WJS) and 3 records (SH field notes).
Contopus s. sordidulus Sclater 1859.
Western Peewee. Pibí
Occidental. NM/SR in western mountains
(April – Sept.). Wintering specimens are
needed to determine the northern races involved. V = windblown? near
C. virens (Linnaeus) 1766. Eastern Peewee. Pibí Oriental. T, fc – c. late Aug. – early Nov. and end
March to early June. SL to 1000 m,
rarely to 2500 m in western mountains WS
on passage. Winters in
403. C. cinereus brachytarsus (Sclater) 1859. Tropical Peewee. Pibí Tropacal. SR, u in Los Tuxtlas and Uxpanapa regions. late-Feb. – Sept., 5 Nov. (WJS). RF and edge, S, O.
Empidonax flaviventris (Baird & Baird) 1843. Yellow-Bellied Flycatcher. Mosquero Vientre-Amarillo. T and NM from
E. virescens (Vieillot) 1818. Acadian Flycatcher. Mosquero
Verdoso. T, fc – c. SL to
E. alnorum Brewster 1895. Alder Flycatcher. Mosquero
Ailero. T. fc – c. SL –
E. t. traillii (Audubon) 1828.
408. E. fulvifrons rubicundus (Cabanis & Heine) 1859. Buff-breasted Flycatcher. Mosquero Pechicanelo. R, fc – c in western mountains, altitudinal migrant down to 900 m. at Fortin (WJS), summer range: 1500 to 2500 m. POF, mainly in O.
409. E. olberholseri Phillips 1939. Dusky Flycatcher. Mosquero Oscuro. NM – 1 record at Orizaba. More field studies are needed to verify if it occurs in other W. mountain areas of the State.
E. wrightii Baird 1858. Gray Flycatcher. Mosquero Gris. V. WJS
411. E. affinis affinis (Swainson) 1827. Pine Flycatcher. Mosquero Pinero. R, fc? only recorded from South slope of Pico de Orizaba. POF.
E. hammondii Xantus 1858.
413. E. pusillus (Swainson) 1827. NM nec E. minimus Baird & Baird 1843. Least Flycatcher. Mosquero Mínimo. NM, fc – c wintering in the whole State. SL to 2500 m, mostly below 1500 m. S, O, RF edge, HF edge.
E. difficilis immemoratus
415. E. albigularis axillaris Ridgway 1874. White-throated Flycatcher. Mosquero Gorjiblanco. R in western mountains. Winters in Los Tuxtlas & Uxpanapa regions. O, H.
416. E. flavescens imperturbatus Wetmore 1942. Yellowish Flycatcher. Mosquero Amarillento. R, u. comes downslope in winter to 150 m. (at the UNAM Biological Station), mostly above 600 m. in Summer. Only in Los Tuxtlas, with several sightings in Uxpanapa region in Dec. (Pronatura). Montane RF and CF. Now endangered through habitat loss.
Sayornis n. nigricans (Swainson)
1827. Black Phoebe. Mosquero Negro. R, fc. SL to 2500 m. In Los Tuxtlas it is an altitudinal migrant,
wintering downslope to
S. saya saya (Bonaparte) 1825. Say's Phoebe.
Mosquero Llanero. NM, r in
419. S. phoebe (Latham) 1790. Eastern Phoebe. Mosquero Fibí. NM, fc – c. Sept. – April. SL to 2500 m. O, S edge. Winters to the S.E. only to Tuxtlas.
Pyrocephalus rubinus blatteus Bangs 1911.
Vermilion Flycatcher. Mosquero
Cardenal. R, fc – c, on coastal plain
Pyrocephalus r. mexicanus Sclater 1859.
Attila spadiceus flammulatus (Lafresnaye) 1848. Bright-rumped Attila. Atila
Rabadilla-brillante. R(?), is SR in Los
Tuxtlas – March – Oct. from
422. Rhytipterna h. holerythra (Sclater & Salvin) 1860. Rufous Mourner. Papamoscas Alazán. R, u – fc. only in extreme S.E., in Uxpanapa region. 200 – 300 m above SL. Recorded by Lowery & Dalquest 10951: 604 and by Pronatura – Dec., 1995. RF and second-growth forest.
Myiarchus crinitus (Linnaeus) 1758. Great Crested Flycatcher. Copetón Viajero. NM, fc – c. Sept. – May. SL to 1000 m.
Only T in northern
M. tyrannulus cooperi Baird 1858. Brown-Crested Flycatcher. Copetón Tirano. SR, fc – c in summer – April –
Sept./early-Oct. Most populations
withdraw in Nov. to S.E. u – r in
M. c. cinerascens (
M. nuttingi cf. inquietus Salvin & Godman 1889 Nutting's Flycatcher. Copetón de Nutting. V ? 1 sight record (WJS) on
427. M. tuberculifer lawrencei (Giraud) 1841. Dusky-capped Flycatcher (Olivaceous Flycatcher is still a better name, as the wintering birds in the State do not have dusky caps.) Copetón Triste. R, fc but northern populations withdraw (Oct. – late-Feb.) and winter in the S.E. SL to 2500 m. throughout the State, but more common at lower elevations. HF, RF, S, O. SL to 2800 m.
Pitangus sulphuratus texanus Van Rossem
1940. Great Kiskadee. Luis Grande.
R, c. SL to 1800 m. Northern to central
P. s. guatimalensis (Lafresnaye) 1852. nec P.
s. derbianus Kaup. R, central southern
429. Megarhynchus pitangua mexicanus (Lafresnaye) 1852. Boat-billed Flycatcher. Luis Piquigrueso. R, fc – c. SL to 1500 m. Mainly a forest bird. HF, RF, S.
430. Myiozetetes similis texensis (Giraud) 1841. Social Flycatcher. Luis Gregario. R, fc – c. SL to 1800 m. O, H, HF and RF edges.
431. Myiodynastes l. luteiventris Sclater 1859. Sulphur-bellied Flycatcher. Papamoscas Vientre-Amarillo. SR. fc – c, SL to 1800 m. March – Sept. HF, RF, S, often seen in O.
M. maculatus insolens Ridgway 1887.
Streaked Flycatcher. Papamoscas
Rayado. SR, u – fc, SL to 1500 m. March
– Sept. Not recorded from SW central
Legatus leucophaius variegatus (Sclater) 1857. Piratic Flycatcher. Papamoscas
Pirata. SR. fc – c. SL to
Tyrannus verticalis Say 1823.
Western Kingbird. Tirano
Occidental. V. 2 records, 1 near Córdoba in the 19th
century and 3 records from Los
Tuxtlas: a ♀ specimen taken on
T. v. vociferans Swainson 1826. Cassin's Kingbird. Tirano de Cassin. V. WJS
had 12 sightings of this species in Los Tuxtlas, which he knows well from field
T. melancholicus satrapa Cabanis & Heine 1859. Tropical Kingbird. Tirano Tropical. SR ? fc – c on
passage – SL to
T. couchii Baird 1858.
Couch's Kingbird. Tirano de Couch.
R/NM u to fc. Breeds in Los Tuxtlas and most of
438. T. tyrannus Linnaeus 1758. Eastern Kingbird. Tirano Viajero. T, fc – c. throughout State: SL to 1800 m, mostly on coastal lowlands late Aug. – end Oct., and late March to May. CO, O.
T. forficatus Gmelin 1789.
Tirano-tijereta Rosado. T, fc –
c. SL to 1500 m. Sept. to April, to latest date = 6 birds seen over
T. savana monachus Hartlaub 1844. Fork-tailed Flycatcher. Tirano-tijereta Sabanero. SR, fc in Tuxtlas, only 10 winter records,
always single birds seen repeatedly. The
bulk of the population withdraws during Oct.
Pronatura had no Dec. records in the Uxpanapa region, but perhaps
due to the lack of wetlands (H). In Los
Tuxtlas the birds are found in O and H. SL
to 1000 m., but only on return passage in the highlands (
Pachyramphus aglaiae aglaiae (Lafresnaye) 1839. Rose-throated Becard. Cabezon Degollado. R, fc –c. northern to central
a. P. a. sumichrasti (Nelson) 1897. This dark ssp (with a purplish throat) is resident from the Motzorongo-Tezonapa region S.E., including Los Tuxtlas and Uxpanapa regions and is now u. – fc. RF edge, S edge, O, H.
P. m. major (Cabanis) 1847. Gray-collared Becard. Cabezón
Cuelligris. SR in Los Tuxtlas, u – fc. R? u – fc. in western
mountains SL to
P. cinnamomeus fulvidior Griscom 1934.
Cinnamon Becard. Cabezón
Canelo. R, u. only in Uxpanapa region. 3 sightings in March, 1962 at 4 km. SW of
Suchilapa by WJS and field party, and sightings by Pronatura in Dec., 1995 in
Tityra semifasciata personata Jardine &
Selby 1827. Masked Tityra.
Titira Enmascarada. R, fc
– c. Now less
common in S.E. due to massive forest destruction. SL to
445. T. inquisitor fraserii (Kaup) 1852. Black-crowned Tityra. Titira Piquinegra. R, fc, now less common with forest destruction. SL to 1200 m. HF, RF, S, O; lives more in the forest than the preceding species.
446. Cotinga amabilis Gould 1857. Lovely Cotinga. Cotinga Azuleja. R, u, now perhaps a bit more common with the massive forest destruction, as it is more commonly seen in open areas with scattered trees. SL to 1200 m in Los Tuxtlas. HF edge, RF edge, O with scattered trees. The species is frugivorous[p28].
Lipaugus u. unirufus Sclater 1859. Rufous Piha.
Piha Rufa. R, u to r. only in
extreme S.E. = Playa Vicente (whence named by Sclater in 1859), 4 kms. S.W. of
Suchilapa (WJS field party, March, 1962) and
448. Schiffornis turdinus veraepacis (Sclater & Salvin) 1860. Thrushlike Mourner. Llorón Café. R. only in Los Tuxtlas and Uxpanapa regions. Formerly fc, now r due to habitat loss. SL to 750 m. only RF. In Los Tuxtlas it was seen only between 150 and 600 m. (WJS).
449. Manacus candei (Parzudaki) 1841. White-collared Manakin. Saltarín Cuelliblanco. Resident, formerly u – fc, now u – r. Recorded from Playa Vicente by Sclater, 1859; from Uxpanapa Region by Lowery and Dalquest 1951: 605 = 1 ♂ specimen; and by WJS’ field party in March, 1962 at 4 kms. S.W. of Suchilapa (4 observations).
450. Pipra m. mentalis Sclater 1857. Red-capped Manakin R, u due to deforestation. SL to 750 m. Formerly occurred from Córdoba-Tezonapa regions South To Uxpanapa region, in lowland HF and RF. Still present also in Los Tuxtlas region, but rare!
Eremophila alpestris chrysolaema (Wagler)
1831. Horned Lark. Alauda Cornuda. R/NM?
Only known in
452. Progne s. subis (Linnaeus) 1758. Purple Martin. Martín Azul. T, fc – c. late July – Oct. and Feb. – May through the State. SL to 3000 m. WS on passage. No winter records.
453. P. c. chalvbea (Gmelin) 1789. Gray-breasted Martin. Martín Pechigris. SR, fc – c. SL to 1500 m., March – Aug. HF edge, RF edge, S edge, O, H, often in towns with trees.
454. Tachycineta bicolor (Vieillot) 1808. Tree Swallow. Golandrina Arbolera. NM, fc – c. SL to 2500 m. late Aug. – May. But winters in low numbers in Los Tuxtlas (WJS). O, H.
T. t. thalassina (Swainson) 1827. Violet-green Swallow. Golandrina Cariblanca. NM,
but perhaps r resident in Los Tuxtlas (Winker et al. 1992: 709; and WJS sightings). First recorded in fall on
T. a. albilinea (
457. Riparia r. riparia (Linnaeus) 1758. Bank Swallow. Golandrina Ribereña. T., fc – c throughout the State – Aug. – Oct., and mid-March – May. WS, but mainly over coastal plain and Co, O, often seen in trees in H when resting.
Stelgidopteryx ridgwayi stuarti Brodkorb 1942. Ridgway’s Swallow. Golandrina-aliserrada Yucateca. SR, u.
in Los Tuxtlas – 5 May – 10 Aug. – at
459. Stelgidopteryx s. serripennis (Audubon) 1838. Northern Rough-winged Swallow. Golandrina-aliserrada Norteño. R/NM, fc – c. Fall transient periods when large flocks are seen on passage are Sept. – Oct. and late March – May, but small flocks normally seen in Los Tuxtlas from Sept. – late April. O, Co, H. SL to 2500 m.
Hirundo rustica erythrogaster Boddaert 1783. Barn Swallow.
Golandrina Ranchero. R/M. fc – c,
especially during migration periods – Aug. – Nov., and March – May. Some coastal flights recorded by SH & SW[nn29] at Tecolutla during April have been estimated as up to 5000 birds
per hour. WJS has seen similar flights
off the Tuxtla coast in April. O, Co, WS
on passage, often in towns & on ranches in
461. H. albifrons albifrons Rafinesque 1822. Cliff Swallow. Golandrina Risquera. T. throughout the State – mid-Aug. – Oct., and Feb. – May. No winter records. Often in large flocks. Co, O. SL to 1500 m.? mainly on coastal plain.
Hirundo fulva pelodoma Brooke 1974.
Cave Swallow. Golandrina
Cuevicola. T. through the State, but not
recorded until now. WJS has for years
studied large flocks of Cliff Swallows resting on wires across the
463. Cyanocitta stellerii coronata (Swainson) 1827. Steller's Jay. Chara de Steller. R, fc – c on the Cofre de Perote massif 2000 - 3500 m. POF & Pine forest, and edges.
C. s. azteca Ridgway 1899, not diademata Bonaparte 1851, contra AOU 1983 & Howell & Webb
1995. R. fc – c. on E. slope of R Mt.
464. Aphelocoma californica sumichrastii (Ridgway) 1874. Scrub Jay. Chara Azuleja. R, fc – c. 1000 – 2500 m. on western mountains POF, edge, S, O.
A. u. ultramarina (Bonaparte) 1825. Gray-breasted Jay. Chara Pechigris. R, fc – c. 1000 – 3500 m. Arid to humid POF, S, O, mountains, W. central
A. unicolor concolor (Cassin) 1848.
Unicolored Jay. Chara
Unicolor. R, fc
– c humid pine-oak and HF, mainly in CF, only on SE slope of Pico de Orizaba. 1200 –
Cyanocorax yncas luxuosus (Lesson) 1839. Green Jay.
Chara Verde. R, fc – c in
northern and central
a. C. y. persimilis Phillips 1966. R, u – fc. in Los Tuxtlas south into Oaxaca & S.E. to Uxpanapa region (Pronatura). RF and edge, CF. SL (formerly) to 1300 m. in Los Tuxtlas. See Schaldach, Escalante and Winker 1997: 122-123 for maintenance of this race.
C. yucatanicus ???? Yucatá[p30]n Jay. Chara
Yucateca. V –
one sighting by WJS, JNS, Luis Petete, Warren Rook, & R.C. Crossin, within
the State of
469. Psilorhinus m. morio (Wagler) 1829. Brown Jay. Chara Papán, Pepe. R – fc –c. SL to 1000 m, at times to 1300 m. in Los Tuxtlas (March, 1994 – WJS and PEP). RF and edge, HF and edge, S, O. Still very common and very noisy.
470. Cyanolyca nana (DuBus) 1847. Dwarf Jay. Chara Enana. R, u – fc. in western mountains, 1600 – 3000 m., mainly in humid POF and pine-evergreen (CF) forest. Now less common due to habitat loss? No recent records? See Howell & Webb, 1995: 543.
C. cucullata mitrata Ridgway 1899.
Azure-Hooded Jay. Chara Gorriazul. R, fc – c.
Corvus corax sinuatus Wagler 1829. Common Raven.
Cuervo Grande. V? or R? in the
western mountains of
473. C. cryptoleucus cryptoleucus Gouch 1854. White-necked Raven. Cuervo Llanero. NM, fc to northern Veracruz. O.
474. C. imparatus Peters 1929. Tamaulipas Crow. Cuervo Tamaulipeco. R, fc. Ranges to south of Laguna Tamiahua. O, Co.
475. Lanius ludovicianus mexicanus Brehm 1854. Loggerhead Shrike. Lanio Americano. R, fc – u in western mountains. O.
a. L. l. excurbitorides Swainson 1832. NM, now u.
Parus s. sclateri
Kleinschmidt 1897. Mexican
Chickadee. Paro Mexicano. R, fc – c. 1500 –
P. w. wollweberi (Bonaparte) 1850. Bridled Titmouse. Paro
Embridado. R, fc – c. E. slope of Pico
de Orizaba and near Acultzingo. 1000 –
P. bicolor atricristatus Cassin 1850. Tufted
Titmouse. Paro Crestinegro. R. fc – c. in
479. Aegithalos minimus personatus (Bonaparte) 1850. Bushtit. Sastrecillo. R, fc – c. 1500 – 3500 m. in the western mountains. POF, oak forest, O.
Sitta pygmaea “flavinucha” Van Rossem
Nuthatch. Saltapalos Enano. R, fc 2000 –
Sitta carolinensis mexicana Nelson &
Palmer 1894. White-breasted
Nuthatch. Saltapalos Pechiblanco. R, fc? 2000 –
Cistothorus palustris dissaeptus Bangs 1902.
Marsh Wren. Saltapared
Pantanero. NM, fc. to central
C. p. laingi (Harper) 1926. NM. This ssp. has been recorded wintering in the
Cistothorus platensis stellariis Naumann
1823. Sedge Wren. Saltapared Sabanero. NM, fc wintering in northern
C. p. xalapensis Dickerman 1975. R, u
b. C. p. warneri Dickerman 1975. R. u Los Tuxtlas and Uxpanapa regions. O,H.
Campylorhynchus z. zonatum (Lesson) 1832. Band-backed Wren. Matraca-Barrada
Tropical. R, fc. SL to
a. C. z. restrictum (Nelson) 1901. This ssp. is common in S.E. Veracruz – Los Tuxtlas and Uxpanapa regions (Pronatura). RF, CF, S, O. It is our most common wren, or at least the noisiest.
C. g. gulare Sclater 1860.
Spotted Wren. Matraca
Manchada. R? WJS had 2 sightings of this species (which he
knows well from field work in Colima & SW Jalisco) at a point near
C. rufinucha rufinucha (Lesson)
1838. Rufous-naped Wren. Matraca Nuquirrufa. R, u – fc. arid
coastal plain, SL to
C. megalopterum nelsoni (Ridgway) 1903. Gray Cactus Wren = “Gray-Barred Wren.” Matraca-Baradada Serrana. R, fc, 2000 – 3000 m., u. down to 1500 m. in
Microcerculus philomela (Salvin) 1861. Northern Nightingale Wren. Saltapared Ruiseñor. R?
Pronatura had a sighting in the
489. Henichorhina leucophrys mexicana Nelson 1897. Gray-breasted Wood-wren. Saltapared-Selvatico Pechigris. R, fc. to c, above 950 m. to 3000 m. in the western mountains. A disjunct population was on the Santa Marta Massif in Los Tuxtlas. No recent records. HF and pine-evergreen forest on the W. mountains Montane RF & CF on Volcán Santa Marta in the Tuxtla region, most of which has been destroyed.
490. H. leucosticta prostheleuca (Sclater) 1857. White-breasted Wood-Wren. Saltapared-Selvatico Pechiblanco. R, fc – c. Found in HF, RF, and S (swamp forest) in the whole State except the northern 1/5th. Still not uncommon in Los Tuxtlas and Uxpanapa regions, the areas where the most forest destruction has occurred. SL – 1300 m.
Uropsila l. leucogastra (Gould) 1837.
White-bellied Wren. Saltapared Vientre-blanco. R, fc – c. SL to
U. l. centralis Phillips 1986. This ssp. occurs from central to northern
492. Troglodytes “aedon aedon” Vieillot 1809. Northern House Wren. Saltapareo-continental Norteño. NM, fc – c. mid-Sept – mid May. SL to 2500 m WS on passage, S, O. Not shown by Howell and Webb 1995: 567 as occurring in the Tuxtla region, but does winter there (WJS Minn. records).
a. T. “aedon” parkmani Audubon 1839. This western ssp. is NM, u – fc in the State, occurring in the Tuxtlas also (first recorded by Wetmore 1943: 300). S, O.
b. T. “a.” brunneicollis Sclater 1858. Brown-throated House Wren. R, fc. in western mountains (only E. slope of Pico de Orizaba?) 1600 – 3000 m. POF and oak woodland, O.
c. T. “a.” intermedius Cabanis 1860. SR in Tuxtlas.
493. T. bewickii mexicanus Deppe 1830. Bewick’s Wren. Saltapared de Bewick. R, u. only two records = SW of Jacales (now called La Ponderosa on State maps), 2000 m., SW of Zacuapilla, in POF, (Lowery & Dalquest 1951: 619, ♂ specimen), and in the valley above Cd. Mendoza (WJS and Pronatura sights at about 2100 m.).
Thryothorus ludovicianus tropicalis Lowery and Newman 1949. Carolina
Wren. Saltapared de Carolina. R, rd? only in extreme
NW Veracruz (WJS sights at
T. maculipectus maculipectus Lafresnaye 1845. Spot-breasted Wren. Saltapared Pechimanchado. R, fc – c. SL to 1300 m. HF and edge, RF and edge, S, O. This ssp. is in southern
T. m. microstictus Griscom 1930.
This ssp. is in C. to
Hylorchilus sumichrasti (
Hylorchilus navai. Crossin & Ely 1973. Nava's Wren.
Cuevero de Nava. R, u? WJS and his field party (JNS, PH, JGB) had many sightings during the
week we spent camped in RF at 4 kms. SW of Suchilapa,
498. Catherpes m. mexicanus (Swainson) 1829. Canyon Wren. Saltapared Barranquero. R, fc. 1000 – 3000 m. in the western mountains, cliffs, canyons, buildings, all in open areas.
Salpinctes o. obsoletus (Say) 1823.
Rock Wren. Saltapared
Roquero. R, fc. 1000 – 3000 m. in the
western mountains? One specimen from
Cinclus mexicanus dickermani Phillips
1966. American Dipper. Mirlo-Acuático Americano. R, fc.
501. Mimus polyglottos (Linnaeus) 1758. Northern Mockingbird. Cenzontle Norteño. R, fc – u in the northern to central parts of the State, SL to 2500 m. NM, u – r in southern Veracruz SL to 1800 m. Sept. – April. O.
502. Mimus gilvus gracilis Cabanis 1851. Southern Mockingbird. Cenzontle Sureño. SR in Los Tuxtlas, March to end-Aug. (WJS). Has nested near Catemaco (See Phillips 1986: 182). O, S, edge. No records from Uxpanapa area ? SL – 500 m.
503. Dumatella c. carolinensis (Linnaeus) 1766. Grey Catbird. Pájaro-gato Gris. NM, fc. SL to 2000 m. in the whole State. WS on passage, wintering in HF and edge, RF and edge, S (thickets). Late Sept. – late May.
D. c. ruficrissa Aldrich 1946.
NM – This subspecies (breeds W. U.S. and
504. Melanotis c. coerulescens (Swainson) 1827. Blue Mockingbird. Mulato Azul. R, fc – c. 1500 – 2500 m. in western mountains only. POF, oak forest, no lowland records?
Toxostoma l. longirostre (Lafresnaye) 1838. Long-billed Thrasher. Cuitlacoche
Piquilargo. R, fc – c in central
Veracruz, SL to
T. ocellatum ocellatum (Sclater) 1862. Ocellated Thrasher. Cuitlacoche Manchado. R, fc? 1500 – 2100 m. on E. slope of Pico de
Orizaba in oak woodland (WJS) and below the Puerto del Aire above town of
507. T. c. curvirostre (Swainson) 1827. Curve-Billed Thrasher. Cuitlacoche Piquicurvo. R, fc in western mountains – 1500 – 3250 m. on the Cofre de Perote. Does not occur in the lowlands of the State. O, in pine forest and POF edge.
Family Certhiidae Incertae Sedis
Certhia americana alticola Miller 1895. Brown Creeper. Trepador Americano. R, fc in western
mountains 1500 –
509. Bombycilla cedrorum (Vieillot) 1808. Cedar Waxwing. Ampelis Americano. NM, fc – c, but irregular – Oct. – early June. SL – 3000 m. Winters throughout the State. Pine forest, POF, HF edge, RF edge, S, oak woodland.
510. Ptiliogonys c. cinereus Swainson 1827. Gray Silky-Flycatcher. Cauplinero Gris. R, fc – c. in western mountains – 2000 to 3500 m, down to 1000 m. in winter (altitudinal migrant). POF, and pine and HF (in winter), also O with trees. This is the correct spelling of the genus – see Phillips 1991: 4.
511. Phainopepla nitens lepida Van Rossem 1925. Phainopepla. Capulinero Negro. V. 1 spec. record, below the Puerto del Aire and above Acultzingo – MLZ. May be found as a vagrant anywhere on the plateau edge of the western mountains.
Regulus c. calendula (Linnaeus)
1766. Ruby-crowned Kinglet. Reyezuelo Sencillo. NM, fc, only in western mountains to central
513. Ramphocaenus rufiventris ssp. Long-billed Gnatwren. Soterillo Pieudo. R, formerly fc – c on Atlantic slope: Córdoba – Presidio region S.E. to Los Tuxtlas and Uxpanapa regions. HF and edge, RF edge, S; SL to 750 m., now less common everywhere due to habitat loss. (See Phillips 1991: 19.)
514. Polioptila c. caerulea (Linnaeus) 1766. Blue-gray gnatcatcher. Perlita Grisilla. NM, fc – c. SL to 2500 m. Oak S, HF & edge, RF & edge, O. The subspecies P. c. deppei, Van Rossem 1934, breeds also in Los Tuxtlas – Mar. – end August; it is the only gnatcatcher seen there in the summer. The migrant subspecies is first seen in numbers in September and is fc all winter to April, when flocks last seen on passage.
515. Polioptila plumbea brodkorbi Parkes 1979. Tropical Gnatcatcher. Tropical Gnatcatcher. Perlita Tropical. SR in Los Tuxtlas, u. March – July. Bulk of population withdraws during August. SL TO 500 m. RF, S (especially swamp forest).
Zoothera p. pinicola (Sclater) 1859.
Aztec Thrush. Zorzal Azteca. R, u – f. in
western mountains = 1800 –
Turdus m. migratorius Linnaeus 1758. American Robin. Zorzal Pechirrojo. NM, u – r in Los Tuxtlas (see Wetmore
1943: 303) and at
a. T. m. phillipsii Bangs 1915. R in the western mountains, fc. to c. 1500 – 3500 m. Downslope in winter. POF, pine forest, S (oak woodland) and forest edges.
T. infuscatus Lafresnaye 1844. Black Robin.
Zorzal Negro. R, 1200 – 3000 m.,
to lower elevations in winter in western mountains. An isolated population was on the Tuxtla
mountains, but may now be near extinction or extinct? due to habitat loss. In the interior mountains it is mainly in POF
and pine-evergreen forest. In Los
Tuxtlas it was mainly in CF (evergreen oak and sweet gum), most of which was
destroyed during the 1970’s & 1980’s.
The species was an altitudinal migrant during “nortes” in the
Tuxtlas: lowest record was a pair seen
at the UNAM’s Biological Station at 150 m. above SL, on
519. T. phaeopygus assimilis Cabanis 1850. Nec T. assimilis auct. See Phillips 1991: 60. White-throated Robin. Zorzal Gorjiblanco. R, fc – c. in western mountains, 900 m at Fortín (WJS) to 3000 m. Altitudinal migrant at lower elevations in winter. Conifers, incl. POF, downslope to HF, at times to S (esp. oak woodland).
T. p. lecauchen Sclater 1858.
This subspecies is R.? on the Tuxtla mountains. But the form is the blackest on the back in
the ♂ of all speciments WJS has seen.
He needs more fresh plumaged specimens to determine if it is a new
subspecies. The species is also an
altitudinal migrant in Los Tuxtlas, down to 150 m. at the UNAM Biological
Station and to the Hotel Playa Azul on
520. T. rufopalliatus ssp. Rufous-backed Robin. Zorzal Dorsirrufo. V. a pair seen at 4 km. SW of Suchilapa, in Veracruz, 1962, by WJS’ field party after we had collected a pair at Montebello, Oaxaca (ca. 15 kms. south of this point) and 1 day before we had collected another pair at Montebello; two different “suradas” were involved in blowing these north. The strength of these trans-isthmus gales has to be experienced to believe in WJS’ vagrant theories. White-collar & tie biologists still know nothing about them.
T. grayi tamaulipensis (Nelson)
1897. Clay-colored Robin. Zorzal Pardo.
R, fc – c. throughout the State, SL to 2100 m. O, S edge, HF edge. This ssp. ranges from northern to central
a. T. grayi lanyoni Dickerman 1981. This ssp. is in southern & S.E. Veracruz. SL to 1300 m. O, S edge, RF edge.
Catharus mustelinus (Gmelin) 1789. Wood Thrush.
Zorzalito Maculado. NM, fc – c. 27 Aug. (WJS)
– 15 May (
523. C. g. guttatus (Pallas) 1811. Hermit Thrush. Zorzalito Colirrufo. NM, u – fc. In the State as a whole the following races have been identified = C. guttatus guttatus. Extreme N.E. Veracruz near SL.
a. C. g. audubonii (Baird) 1864. In the western mountains and in the Tuxtlas at SL (WJS) = a dead bird on the coast examined & measured.
b. C. g. nanus (Audubon) 1838. A specimen taken near Sontecomapan and identified as this form by A. R. Phillips (see Winker et al. 1992: 710). The bird identified by WJS was a large ♂ = W (not flattened) = 109, in fresh fall plumage, heavily spotted with black on the breast and greyish on the back, the crissum pale buff. More collecting is needed, as always, to determine other races of this very variable species in winter or in transit in the State. Sight records of Catharus thrushes are always dubious, due to confusing similarities among the subspecies. WS in transit, POF, oak forest, S (including swamp forest), HF, and RF (both of the last 2 at higher elevations in winter).
524. C. occidentalis fulvescens Nelson 1897. Russet Nightingale-Thrush. Zorzalito Piquipardo. R, fc in western mountains. 1500 – 3500 m., altitudinal migrant in winter to lower elevations. Easily confused with the following species, but identified in flight by a streak of buffy to yellowish on the undersides of the wings, across the base of the primaries & secondaries. The under-wing in the following species is plain gray.
525. Catharus frantzii omiltemensis Ridgway 1905. “Ruddy-capped” Nightingale-Thrush. (Bear in mind that the species above and this one have ruddy caps, with no discernible difference.!) R, u – fc. in the western mountains – 900 m (at Fortín, Pronatura spec., WJS sights) to 3500 m. Coniferous forest, POF, descends to HF in winter.
C. ustulatus ustulatus (Nuttall)
1840. Swainson's Thrush. Zorzalito
de Swainson. NM, fc– c. The ssp. C. ustulatus appalachiensis, C. ustulatus incanus, and C. ustulatus swainsonii are the only
recorded races of Olive-backed Thrush in
Catharus m. minimus (Lafresnaye) 1848. Gray-Cheeked Thrush. Zorzalito Carigris. T, r, mainly coastal? 1 record from
528. C. f. fuscescens (Stephens) 1817. Veery. Zorzalito Rojizo. T, u. The above species and this one both are apparently trans-Gulf migrants landing on the coast of S.E. Veracruz in the Tuxtla region, and continuing overland along the Atlantic coast of Middle America to winter in Colombia to Brazil (See map in Howell & Webb 1995: 587 and Phillips 1991: 93 – 95 and 96 – 101. The return trip is almost the same (trans-Gulf) = SH & WJS sights of birds flying out to sea at dark from the beach at La Barra de Sontecomapan. The Catharus thrushes are not recommended to birdwatchers; even Phillips was deceived by a specimen (photo facing page 104, Phillips 1991), which he identified as C. fuscescens; the specimen was thoroughly re-studied by Patten and identified as a C. minimus! (Dickerman, et al. 1997). Remember, even the most knowledgable are fooled, and with the bird in hand! The following subspecies have been recorded in the State:
a. C. f. pulichorum Phillips 1991. T 30 April – 6 May.
b. C. f. fuliginosus (Howe) 1900. T 30 April – 8 May; 27 Sept, 3 Oct.
c. C. f. salicola (Ridgway) 1882. T 30 April – 5 May.
529. C. aurantürostris melpomene (Cabanis) 1850. Orange-billed Nightingale-Thrush. Zorzalito. R, fc – c, 600 – 2500 m. in the western mountains, coming down-slope to 600 m. in winter. Arid O to humid POF, down to HF and edge.
a. C. a clarus Jody 1894. Is a NM, r – several records, in winter, also in the western mountains (INIREB). See Phillips, 1991: 106.
C. m. mexicanus (Bonaparte) 1856. Black-headed Nightingale-Thrush. Zorzalito Cabecinegro. R, fc – c in the mountains of W. central
a. C. m. cantator Griscom 1930. This subspecies is only in Los Tuxtlas and presumably also in the mountains above the Uxpanapa regions. R, formerly fc, now u. It is also an altitudinal migrant, down to near SL in Los Tuxtlas in Dec. and Jan. RF, CF.
531. Sialia sialis nidificans Phillips 1991. Eastern Bluebird. Azulejo Gorjicanelo. R, fc. 600 to 2700 m. in the western mountains. POF, pine woodland, O.
532. S. m. mexicana (Swainson) 1827. Western Bluebird. Azulejo Gorjiazul. R, fc. 1500 – 3000 m. in the western mountains. Pine woodland, POF, oak woodland.
533. Myadestes o. obscurus Lafresnaye 1839. Brown-backed solitaire. Clarín Jilguero. R, fc – c. 600 – 3000 m. Another altitudinal migrant in winter, down to lower elevations Dec. & Jan. POF, S, HF. In western mountains. WJS had 1 V record – an adult in the forest at Nanciyagaon 28 Feb., 1997, in Los Tuxtlas.
534. M. u. unicolor Sclater 1857. Slate-coloured Solitaire. Clarín Unicolor. R, fc, now u? 1000 m. – 2700 m. in the western mountains; down to lower elevations in winter (Dec. – Feb.), pine forest to HF; near SL (in winter) to 1300 m. in Los Tuxtlas, where breeds in CF, now u due to cage-bird traffic & habitat loss.
Anthus rubescens geophilus Lea & Edwards 1950. Water Pipit.
Bisbita Americana. NM, r – only
recorded by specimens (3) taken by the
a. A. r. pacificus Todd 1935. NM Both reach Tuxtlas.
Anthus spragueii (Audubon) 1844. Sprague's Pipit. Bisbita de Sprague. NM, r. only 3 specimens recorded from the
State: 1 at
Family Sturnidae – introduced
537. Sturnus vulgaris Linnaeus 1758. European Starling. Estornino Europeo. Only 1 valid record for the State: the specimen (nesting) taken by the Minnesota group[B32] in Los Tuxtlas (Winker et al. 1992: 711); TBL, O, towns.
Phillips 1991: 152 says this family is Incertae sedis
Cyclarhis gujanensis flaviventris Lafresnaye
1842. Rufous-browed Peppershrike. Vireón Cejirrufo. R, u – fc. SL to 1800 m. HF and edge, RF and edge, S, O. Chiefly in lowlands. C &
a. Cyclarhis g. septentrionalis Phillips 1991.
This ssp. is in in NW Veracruz.
Vireolanius pulchellus ramosi Phillips
1991. Green Shrike-Vireo. Vireón Esmeralda. R, fc – u. SL to 1800 m.
540. Vireolanius melitophrys crossini Phillips 1991. Chestnut-sided Shrike-Vireo. Vireón Pechicastaño. R, fc – u – 1200 – 3500 m. in the western mountains. POF, oak woodland, pine forest, upper HF (CF).
Hylophilus decurtatus brevipennis (Giraud) 1852. Lesser Greenlet. Verdillo Cabecigris. R. fc – c – 500 to 1500 m. in the western
foothills South to
a. H. d. dickermani Parkes 1991. This subspecies is known from Los Tuxtlas and Uxpanapa regions. R. u – fc. S, RF.
542. H. o. ochraceiceps Sclater 1859. Tawny-crowned Greenlet. Verdillo Corona-leonada. R, u. – SL to 1200 m. recorded from Presidio S.E. to Los Tuxtlas and Uxpanapa regions. HF, RF, S.
Vireo b. brevipennis (Sclater) 1857. Slaty Vireo. Vireo Pizarra. R, u. 1200 to 2500 (?) m. only in western mountains
& foothills – near
V. g. griseus (Boddaert) 1783. White-eyed Vireo.
Vireo Ojiblanco. This form and
following form are NM, fc – c. – late Sept. – early May (to mid-May in Los Tuxtlas). The form perquisitor
is apparently resident in central to
a. V. g. micrus Nelson 1899. NM Winters to SE.
b. V. g. perquisitor Nelson 1900. R C. Veracruz
V. pallens cf. salvini VanRossem 1934. Mangrove Vireo. Vireo Manglero. SR – u in mangroves of Laguna de Sontecomapan
in Los Tuxtlas – early April to end August.
WJS has over 50 sightings of this bird in the lagoon, but the presence
of this species must be verified by specimens.
The bird he has seen is close to Phillips (1991: 178) description of the single specimen known
546. V. huttoni mexicanus Ridgway 1903. Hutton's Vireo. Vireo Reyezuelo. R, fc in the western mountains, 1200 – 3000 m. POF, pine forest, S, incl. oak woodland.
547. V. flavifrons Vieillot 1808. Yellow-throated Vireo. Vireo Gorjiamarillo. NM, u to fc. Transient in northern half of the State = Aug. – Oct. & April; winters in southern half – Aug. – late April.
V. s. solitarius (
549. V. plumbeus gravis Phillips 1991. Plumbeous Vireo. Vireo Plomizo. R, u to fc. in the western mountains, 1500 – 3000 m. POF, down-slope in winter oak woodland, S. Vagran (1 record – Phillips 1991: 193) to Los Tuxtlas.
V. bellii bellii Audubon 1844.
a. V. b. medius Oberholser 1903. T
Vireo “olivaceus (Linnaeus)
V. virescens caniviridis (Burleigh) 1960. Both ssp. have been recorded as T in
552. V. f. flavoviridis Cassin 1851. Yellow-green Vireo. Vireo Amarillo-Verdoso. SR, fc – c; SL to 1500 m, but mainly on coastal plain 21 March to 4 Sept. in Los Tuxtlas (Minn). Arrival & departure dates for other areas in the State are needed. HF & RF, edges, S edge, O with shrubs & scattered trees.
Vireosylva philadelphica Cassin 1851.
Vireosylva s. swainsonii (Baird) 1858.
Swainson’s Vireo. Vireo de
Swainson. NM, fc? u? winterer from Los
Tuxtlas SE to the Uxpanapa region (Aug. – May); T in central & northern
a. V. s. brewsteri Ridgway 1903. V. Wind-blown in the Tuxtlas region from the south coast of the Isthmus. Two records by ARP, and a specimen.
Vireosylva amauronota cf. strenva (Nelson)
1900, nec leucophrys AOU. Mexican Brown-capped Vireo. Vireo Gorri-pardo. R, u to r. in the
western mountains – 1200 –
556. Peucedramus taeniatus jaliscensis Miller and Griscom 1925. Olive Warbler. Chipe Ocotero. R, fc – c. in the western mountains, in C-W Veracruz. 1500 – 3000 m. Pine forest & POF, in arid areas.
557. Protonotaria citrea (Boddaert) 1783. Prothonotary Warbler. Chipe Protonotario. T, fc – c: late July to mid-Oct., and March & April, to 26 April. WS on passage: SL – 1500 m; rare winterer in mangroves & swamp forest of the Laguna de Sontecomapan (WJS – 15 winter sightings). Mainly on the coastal plain in migration?
Vermivora pinus (Linnaeus) 1766. Blue-winged Warbler. Chipe Aliazul. T, u to fc through northern to S. central
559. V. chrysoptera (Linnaeus) 1766. Golden-winged Warbler. Chipe Alidorado. T, u to fc. throughout lowlands of the State – SL to 1800 m. (rarely), mostly on coastal plain: Sept. – 28 Oct. & April – 12 May. In Tuxtlas is a rare winter resident: Nov. – early April. HF & edge, S and edge, RF and edge.
V. peregrina (
561. V. c. celata (Say) 1823. Orange-Crowned Warbler. Chipe Corona-naranja. NM, fc – c, SL to 3000 m. Aug. – 15 May (WJS in Los Tuxtlas). RF and edge, HF and edge, O, S and edge.
V. c orestera Oberholser 1905. This subspecies has also been recorded in the
V. r. ruficapilla (
a. V. r. ridgwayi Van Rossem 1929. NM, u? More specimens needed to determine status in the State.
V. superciliosa mexicana
(Bonaparte) 1850. Crescent-chested
Warbler. Chipe Cejiblanco. R, fc – c. in the
western mountains – 1500 to
V. luciae (Cooper) 1861. Lucy's Warbler. Chipe de Lucy. V. WJS had 2 sightings on
Parula pitiayumi nigrilora Coues
1878. Tropical Parula. Parula Tropical. R, fc – SL to
567. P. p. inornata Baird 1864. SR, Los Tuxtlas and Uxpanapa regions, bulk of population withdrawing in September, but as late as October. Very rare in winter (this contra Howell & Webb 1995: 633). Less than 10 winter sightings over 33 years.
Dendroica petechia aestiva (Gmelin) 1789. Yellow Warbler. Chipe
Amarillo. NM, c – a. Aug. – end May. SL to
b. D. p. bryanti Ridgway 1873. This SR (March – Sept.) race breeds in mangroves & swamp forest in all coastal lagoons, and inland to near Tlacotalpan in the Papaloapan Delta (Dickerman, et al. 1972).
568. D. pensylvanica (Linnaeus) 1766. Chestnut-sided Warbler. Chipe Flanquicastaño. T, fc – c in northern 2/3rds of the State: Sept. – Oct., and April & May. In Tuxtlas and Uxpanapa regions = NM, fc Sept. to May. HF and edge, RF and edge, S.
569. D. coronata coronata (Linnaeus) 1766. Eastern Yellow-rumped Warbler. Chipe Rabadilla-amarilla. NM, fc – c. SLevel to 1500 m., most common below 1000 m. Oct. to mid-May. HF edge, RF edge, S edge, O, includes hedgerow trees.
a. D. c. audubonii (Townsend) 1837. NM
b. D. c. memorabilis Oberholser 1921. NM
a & b – Western Yellow-rumped (or Audubon’s) Warbler. Chipe Rabadilla-amarilla Occidental. NM, fc. western mountains. 1500 – 3000 m. ?V in Tuxtla mountains – 4 specimen records (Wetmore 1943:315), plus 8 sight records, WJS, SH & SW, and ARP. Most probably wind-blown vagrants from the mid-Isthmus mountains by violent “suradas.”
(Wilson) 1811. Magnolia
Warbler. Chipe de Magnolia. NM, fc – c. SL to
four species of Dendroica Warblers
have identical wintering grounds on the Caribbean side of the
D. tigrina (Gmelin) 1789.
D. caerulescens (Gmelin) 1789. Black-throated Blue Warbler. Chipe Azuloso.
NM, r(?) often not seen due to dense disturbed rain forest interior
which it favors in winter here in Los Tuxtlas – Winker et al. 1992: 713 reported the species in disturbed RF and second
growth, usually thick, with much understory.
They collected 2 specimens in fall (21 Oct. & 7 Nov.), and saw 2
others in fall (17 and 29 Nov.) and 2 others on 21 & 25 March. WJS had 11 sight records in winter, from
D. discolor (Vieillot) 1808. Prairie Warbler. Chipe Pradeño. NM, r – u. SL to 500 m. (at Dos Amates). Seen often on the coastal plain (N. of the
mountains) in Los Tuxtlas. Winker et al. 1992: 713 recorded it for the
first time from the State of Veracruz, from the coastal plain of Los Tuxtlas,
near Playa Escondida: 4 specimens: 30 Oct., 1 and 15 Jan., and 12 Feb. WJS had fall, winter, and spring sightings in
the same coastal area (
D. palmarum (Gmelin) 1789. Palm Warbler.
Palm Warbler. Chipe Playero. NM, u to r. SL to over 500 m. 17 October
(WJS) to 26 April. See Winker et al. for their 3 specimens (2 on 23
Nove, and 1 on 7 Jan.) and their winter sightings: 9 & 10 Feb. & Jan. – March near
Bastonal. WJS had winter sightings (9)
and SH had a Jan. sighting in pasture at Arroyo Agrio on
Much more observational work is needed on these four species, especially to confirm WJS’ hypothesis of migrant species which are blown off-course by north winds and which winter here in low numbers.
575. D. nigrescens (Townsend) 1837. Black-throated Gray Warbler. Chipe Negrigris. NM, u – fc. 1500 – 3000 m. in western mountains. Pine forest, POF, oak woodland. V. in Los Tuxtlas – 1 record (ARP, published in Andrle 1966: 182). Wind-blown vagrant from the Pacific coastal mountains.
576. D. townsendi (Townsend) 1837. Townsend's Warbler. Chipe de Townsend. NM, u – fc. 1500 – 3000 m. in the western mountains. High conifers & POF. V in Los Tuxtlas (SH & SW personal comm., from field notes 1990 above Bastonal.) Windblown vagrants from the Pacific coastal mountains.
577. D. virens Gmelin (1789). Black-throated Green Warbler. Chipe Dorsiverde. NM, fc – c. from the coastal plain to pine-oak forest at 2000 m. in the western mountains. WS in winter (contra Keast, in Keast & Morton, editors, Migrant Birds in the Neotropics: 117, Symposia Nat. Zool. Park, Smithsonian Inst.). Quite common in lowlands of Tuxtla and Uxpanapa region (MAR, WJS, SH, and Pronatura).
578. D. chrysoparia Sclater and Salvin 1860. Golden-Cheeked Warbler. Chipe Caridorado. T, u. July – end Sept. and February to early April. 1200 – 3000 m. WS in western mountains. No lowland records (?). V. in Los Tuxtlas (WJS, a sighting of 3 ♂♂ in disturbed RF at Nanciyaga on 28 Feb., 1997) at about 340 m. above SL. Most probably wind-blown vagrants blown north by trans-Isthmus “surada” while in migratory east to west flight across the Isthmus.
579. D. occidentalis (Townsend) 1837. Hermit Warbler. Chipe Cabeciamarilla. NM – fc. 500 – 3000 m. in the western mountains late Aug. – May. Pine forest, POF, and oak woodland. Altitudinal migrant in winter. V in Los Tuxtlas 7000 – 1000 m. Oct. & Dec 1962. (Andrle 1966: 182, reporting his 2 sightings and ARP’s 2 specimens collected in Dec.; and WJS sightings: 2 ♂♂ seen at 750 m. below Bastonal on 8 March, 1993 – wind-blown vagrants.)
D. graciae cf. decora Ridgway 1873.
Grace's Warbler. Chipe de Grace. R? 1 record from
(Muller) 1766. Blackburnian
Warbler. Chipe Gorjinaranja. T, fc – c. late Aug. – Nov. and April –
May. SL to 2000 m.
D. castanea (
D. cerulea (
586. Mniotilta varia (Linnaeus) 1766. Black-and-white Warbler. Chipe Trepador. NM, fc to c. SL to 2500 m. Aug. – 15 May. WS, but mainly in HF and edge, RF and edge, S, O, with hedgerows, Co (often in palm trees) and H.
Setophaga ruticilla (Linnaeus)
1758. American Redstart. Pavito Migratorio. NM, fc – c. SL to
Wilsonia canadensis (Linnaeus)
1758. Canada Warbler. Chipe Collarejo o Canadense. T, fc – c. SL to
Wilsonia citrina (Boddaert) 1783. Hooded Warbler. Chipe
Encapuchado. NM, fc – c. SL to
Wilsonia pusilla pusilla (
The following subspecies have been recorded in the State in winter:
a. W. p. chryseola Ridway 1902. NM
b. W. p. pileolata (Pallas) 1811. NM
Oporornis formosus (
593. O. tolmiei (Townsend) 1837. MacGillivray's Warbler. Chipe de Tolmie. NM, fc – c, 1800 – 2500 in the western mountains Late Aug. to early May. POF, pine forest, oak woodland. V to Tuxtla mountains = Andrle 1966: 183; Winker, et al. 1992: 714 (5 specimens from 8 – 13 May), and WJS observations: 10 Oct., 16 Oct., 28 Nov., 22 Dec., 2 Feb., and 12 March, all in different years: his latest sighting 3 April = 6 – 7 birds below Bastonal, with SH. All these records thought by WJS to involve birds blown north across the Isthmus by violent “suradas.” Phillips, in Andrle (op. cit.) identified 2 subspecies in his 1962 specimens – O. t. tolmiei & O. t. intermedia.
594. Ergaticus ruber (Swainson) 1827. Red Warbler. Chipe Rojo. R, fc. 1800 – 3000 m. only in western mountains, comes down-slope in winter. Fir forest, pine forest, POF, to oak woodland in cold winters.
595. Myioborus pictus (Swainson) 1829. Painted Redstart. Pavito Aliblanco. R, fc – c. 1000 to 3000 m. only in western mountains. POF, and oak woodland, down to HF in winter.
596. M. miniatus (Swainson) 1827. Slate-throated Redstart. Chipe Gorjigris. R, fc. 1000 – 3000 m. in the western mountains. In pine forest, POF, down to oak woodland & montane HF often in winter. An isolated population in the Tuxtla mountains now r and endangered, as most of its CF and upper montane RF has been destroyed during the past 30 years. It represents a distinct endemic subspecies.
a. M. m. molochinus Wetmore 1942. R in Los Tuxtlas. In RF, pine forests, 500 – 1300 m. in summer. Also altitudinal migrant in winter.
Cardellina rubrifrons (Giraud) 1841. Red-faced Warbler. Chipe Carirrojo. NM, fc – u, 1500 – 3000 m. Sept. –
April. Altitudinal migrant, downslope in
winter. Pine forest, POF, oak
woodland. Only in the western mountains: slopes of
Limnothlypis swainsonii (Audubon) 1834. Swainson's Warbler. Chipe
de Swainson. NM, u – fc, SL to
599. Helmitheros vermivorus (Gmelin) 1789. Worm-eating Warbler. Chipe Gusanero. NM, fc – c, SL to 1500 m. Only transient through about the northern half of the State, Aug. – Oct. and April – early May. It winters (Sept. to late March) in the southern half. The spring migration returns through April to 12 May. HF, RF, S.
600. Basileuterus b. bellii (Giraud) 1841. Golden-browed Warbler. Chipe Cejidorado. R, fc – c in the western mountains: 1200 – 3000 m. It is another altitudinal migrant, coming down-slope in winter. Pine forest, POF, oak woodland, and in montane HF in winter. The isolated population in the Tuxtla mountains is now considerably diminished due to habitat loss. The species is now u to r there, in CF and high montane RF. WJS considers it endangered in the Tuxtlas.
B. c. culicivorus (Deppe) 1830.
Golden Crowned Warbler. Chipe
Corona-dorado. R, fc –c. near SL to 1500
m. This subspecies occurs in central &
B. c. brasheri (Giraud) 1841. This subspecies has been recorded from
B. r. rufifrons (Swainson) 1837. Rufous-Capped Warbler. Chipe Gorrirrufo. R, fc – c. near SLevel to 2500 m. from
Euthlypis lachrymosa (Bonaparte) 1851. Fan-tailed Warbler. Chipe Roquero. R, fc – u. SL (in winter in Los Tuxtlas –
RCE, photo, netted) to 1600 m. in western
Seiurus a. aurocapillus (Linnaeus) 1758. Ovenbird.
S. n. noveboracensis (Gmelin) 1789.
a. S. n. notabilis Ridgway 1880.
S. motacilla (Vieillot) 1808.
Geothlypis t. trichas (Linnaeus) 1766. Common Yellowthroat. Mascarita Comun. Four subspecies have been specimen-recorded
from the State of
a. G. t. melanops Baird 1865. R
b. G. t. typhicola Burleigh 1934. NM
Geothlypis flavovelata Ridgway
1896. Altamira Yellowthroat. Mascarita de Altamira. R, fc – c, SL to
610. Geothlypis poliocephela Ridgway 1881. Gray-crowned Yellowthroat. Mascarita Piquigruesa. R, fc – c. SL to 1500 m. O, S edge. Not a marsh bird.
611. Icteria v. virens Linnaeus 1758. Yellow-breasted Chat. Gritón Pechiamarillo. NM, fc – c. SL to 1500 m. mid-Aug. to late May. In winter is conspicuous, in O, S edge and thickets.
Granatellus s. sallaei (Bonaparte) 1856. Gray-throated Chat. Granatelo Gorjigris. R, u – southern
Coereba flaveola mexicana (Sclater)
1856. Bananaquit. Platanero. SR, u to
fc. mid-March to end September. SL to
614. Cyanerpes cyaneus carneipes (Sclater) 1859 Red-Legged Honeycreeper. Mielero Patirrojo. SR, fc – c. SL to 1500 m. mid-March to early Sept. Rare winter resident. HF and edge, RF and edge, S and edge, often seen in O at flowers. (Diurnal migrant.)
615. Chlorophanes spiza guatemalensis Sclater 1861. Green Honeycreeper. Mielero Verde. R, u. to r. Only in Uxpanapa region (Pronatura sights) and 4 kms. SW of Suchilapa in April, 1962 (WJS & field party sights). RF and edge.
616. Diglossa b. baritula Wagler 1832. Cinnamon-bellied Flowerpiercer. Picaflor Vientro-canelo. R, fc – c. 1200 – 3000 m. only in the western mountains. POF down to HF, in clearings with flowers.
617. Euphonia affinis olmecorum Dickerman 1981. Scrub Euphonia. Eufonia Gorjinegro. R, fc – c. SL to 1500 m. most of the State, except for NE corner. HF edge, S, RF edge, O with hedgerows & scattered trees.
618. E. hirundinacea caribbaea Phillips 1966. Yellow-throated Euponia. Eufonia Gorjiamarillo. SR?, fc – c. The subspecies E. hirundinacea caribaea Phillips 1966 breeds here (late March to late August). It apparently leaves the Tuxtla region and is replaced by more northern birds (subspecies E. h. suttoni: Phillips 1966) during Sept. (Allan R. Phillips pers. comm, from specimens examined). Our breeding birds appear to go south to winter on the Pacific coast (see Binford 1989: 241). Much more field work (including collection of specimens) is needed to clarify this situation.
E. h. suttoni Phillips 1966. R in northern
E. e. elegantissima
(Bonaparte) 1838. Blue-hooded Euphonia. Eufonia Capuch-azul. R, fc – c. 500 –
E. gouldii loetscheri Phillips 1966. Olive-backed Euphonia. Eufonia Olivácea. R, fc SL to 1000 m., now u. in Los
Tuxtlas. Only in southern
621. Chlorophonia o. occipitalis (DuBus) 1847. Blue-crowned Chlorophonia. Clorofonia Coroniazul. R, fc – c. 900 to 2500 m. in the western mountains. Altitudinal migrant, coming down-slope to the lower elevations in winter. In POF and oakwoodland in summer, down to HF and edge. It is also R, u in the Tuxtla mountains and is also an altitudinal migrant there, specimens taken near Montepío near SL (Winker et al. 1992: 714). In the Tuxtla mountains it breeds in CF & upper montane RF.
622. Chlorospingus o. ophthalmicus (DuBus) 1847. Common Bush-Tanager. Chinchinero Común. R, fc – c. In the western mountains: 1000 to 3000 m. Altitudinal migrant, downslope to HF. POF, oak woodland. The isolated and endemic subspecies (C. o. wetmorei Lowery & Newman 1949) in the Tuxtla mountains is now u to r. It breeds in cloud forest and upper montane RF from 1300 to 800 m, and comes down-slope in winter to about 150 m. This race was overlooked in Howell & Webb 1995: 678, although he showed its disjunct population on the range maps, but attributed it to the subspecies postocularis, which does not occur in Veracrua.
a. C. o. wetmorei Lowery & Newman 1949. Los Tuxtlas. (See above.)
Tangara l. larvata (DuBus)
1846, nec. Thraupis A.O.U. Golden-hooded
Tanagers. Tángara Capucha-dorada. R, fc – r.
Recorded from Playa Vicente by Sclater 1859. WJS & his field party saw a pair in an
isolated tree at RF edge at 4 kms. SW of Suchilapa,
Thraupis epicopus diaconus (Lesson)
1842. Blue-gray Tanager. Tángara Azuligris. R, fc – c. most of the State except northern
¼. SL to 1500 m. S edge, HF edge, RF edge, but mostly in O
with some trees. Roosts and breeds in
trees in Catemaco and other towns in southern
625. T. abbas Deppe 1830. Yellow-winged Tanager. Tángara Aliamarilla. R, fc – c, SL to 1500 m. in the entire State except the high mountains HF and edge, RF edge, S edge, O with scattered trees.
626. Eucometis penicillata pallida Berlepsch 1888. Gray-headed Tanager. Tangara Cabecigris. SR, u to fc. late March to late Sept. Very few winter records in Los Tuxtlas. SL to 800 m. RF, S.
Ramphocelus p. passerinii Bonaparte 1833. Scarlet-rumped Tanager. Tángara Terciopelo. Now R, u, invading since 1985 (WJS) in the new
pasturelands from the open areas in
R. s. sanguinolentus (Lesson) 1831. Crimson-collared Tanager. Tángara Cuellirroja. R, fc, SL to 1300 m. Now less common due to habitat loss. RF edge, S including swamp forest.
629. Spermagra l. leucoptera (Trudeau) 1839. White-winged Tanager. Tángara Aliblanca. R, fc. to u. 150 – 1800 m., mostly above 500 m. In the western mountains ranges between 900 and 1800 m; the species is an altitudinal migrant, coming down to lower areas in winter. In Los Tuxtlas the species comes down to almost SL in cold, wet “nortes.”
630. Piranga r. rubra (Linnaeus) 1758. Summer Tanager. Tángara Roja. NM, fc – c. SL to 2500 m. late Aug. – 10 May. HF, RF, S, but often seen in open areas with trees during transient periods – Sept. to late Oct., and 15 March to May.
Piranga flava dextra Bangs
1907. Hepatic Tanager. Tángara Encinera. R, fc – c
632. Piranga olivacea (Gmelin) 1789. Scarlet Tanager. Tangara Escarlata. T, u. This species is strictly a trans-Gulf migrant, arriving in Los Tuxtlas 30 Sept. with our last fall record on 27 Oct. (KW, pers. comm.). WJS saw a total of 86 birds from 1976 to 1991. All were on the coastal plain of the Tuxtla region. See Howell and Webb, 1995: 674, and range map.
P. bidentata sanguinolenta (Swainson)
1827. Flame-colored Tanager. Tángara Dorsirrayada. R, fc – c. in the
western mountains. 900-
P. b. bidentata (Lafresnaye) 1839. An immature ♂ specimen of this western
race was caught by a “pajarero” above the
P. ludoviciana (
Habia rubica rubicoides (Lafresnaye) 1844. Red-crowned
Ant-Tanager. Tángara-hormiguera Coronirroja. R, fc – c, SL to 1200 m. HF, RF, S and second-growth. Not in northeastern
636. H. fuscicauda salvini (Berlepsch) 1883. Red-throated Ant-Tanagers. Tángara-hormiguerra Gorjirroja. R, fc – c, SL to 1200 m. HF and edge, RF and edge, S and edge, second-growth.
Lanio aurantius (Lafresnaye) 1846. Black-throated Shrike-Tanager. Tangara-lanio Gorjinegro. R, fc – u. SL to 1200 m. southern
(WJS prefers a return to all pre-1983 AOU classifications)
nec AOU’s raising this group of species to family rank.
638. Saltator a. atriceps (Lesson) 1832. Black-headed Saltator. Saltador Cabecinegro. R, fc – c, SL to 1800 m. in most of the State. HF edge, O with trees, second-growth, S edge.
a. S. a. suffuscus Wetmore 1942. Only in Los Tuxtlas & perhaps to Uxpanapa region (needs specimen from that area). Endemic subspecies, immediately distinguished in the field by its brown throat. R, fc. RF edge, S edge, O.
639. S. maximus gigantodes Cabanis 1851. Buff-throated Saltator. Saltador Gorjileonado. R, fc – c, SL to 1500 m. HF edge, RF edge, S edge, O.
S. coerulescens grandis (Deppe) 1830.
Grayish Saltator. Saltador Grisáceo.
R, fc – c, SL to
641. Rhodothraupis celaeno (Deppe) 1830. Crimson-collared Grosbeak. Picogrueso Cuellirrojo. R, fc to u, SL to 1200 m. S, O, HF and edge, south to Papantla area.
Caryothraustes p. poliocephala (DuBus) 1847.
Black-faced Grosbeak. Picogrueso
Carinegro. R, formerly fc – c, now
uncommon due to habitat loss, SL to 1200 m.
HF and edge, RF and edge, only in southern
643. Cardinalis cardinalis coccineus Ridgway 1873. Northern Cardinal. Cardenal Norteño. R, fc – c, SL to 2000 m. in entire State except high mountains. S, HF and second growth, O, Co.
a. C. c. littoralis Nelson 1897. This subspecies occurs on the north coast of the Tuxtla region (T.L. Coatzacoalcos) and perhaps S.E. to the Uxpanapa region. (Specimens needed to determine the race found there). Co scrub & dunes, O. SL to perhaps 500 m.
644. Cardinalis s. sinuatus Bonaparte 1837. Pyrrhuloxia. V – sightings by Pronatura near plateau edge (El Limón & Perote).
645. Pheucticus ludovicianus (Linnaeus) 1766. Rose-breasted Grosbeak. Picogrueso Pechirrosado. NM, fc – c, SL to 2500 m. in entire State except the northeastern corner and the highest mountains. HF and edge, RF and edge, S and edge, H with trees, O with trees. October – May.
646. P. m. melanocephalus (Swainson) 1827. Black-Headed Grosbeak. Picogrueso Tigrillo. R, u, on plateau edge below El Puerto del Aire above Acultzingo – 1 breeding record (MLZ). NM, fc in western mountains – late Aug. – May.
Sporophila cyanoides concreta DuBus 1855.
Blue-black Grosbeak. Picogrueso
Azul. Taxonomic note: WJS can find no evidence (morphological, nest
construction, egg-color, etc.) for maintaining the AOU-sponsored genus “Cyanocompsa.” The present species is obviously an overgrown
Sporophila = forest-dwelling habit,
nest construction (with use of spider silk to tie the nest into place) with 2
eggs mottled almost identically to most Sporophila
eggs (which are always two – three and mottled) & song. The other species (C. parellelina) has already been changed to Passerina by J. O’Neill and other ornithologists and rightly so WJS
believes = nest an open cup as are all Passerina
nests, eggs 3 – 4 and white or palest blue.
R, fc – to now u due to habitat loss in Los Tuxtlas. HF and edge, RF and edge, dense S. SL to 900 m.
Only in southern
648. S. m. morelleti (Bonaparte) 1850. White-collared (Morelett’s) Seedeater. Semillero Collarejo. R, c – a, SL to 2000 m, mainly below 1000 m. O, with scattered trees, S edge and second-growth (“acahual”).
S. aurita corvina (Sclater) 1859. Variable Seedeater. Semillero Variable. R, fc – u[p34], SL to 1000 m.
Sporophila angolensis funerea (Sclater) 1859, nec “Oryzoborus” AOU et
auctorum – see Olson 1980.
Thick-billed Finch. Semillero
Piquigrueso. R, u to fc, SL to 1000 m.
Passerina caerulea euryncha (Coues)
1874. Blue Grosbeak. Picogrueso Azul. NM, fc – c, SL –
P. amoena (Say) 1828.
Lazuli Bunting. Colorín Lazulita.
V – one specimen record from
653. P. p. parellina (Bonaparte) 1850. Blue Bunting. Colorín Azulinegro. R, fc – c, SL to 1500 m. throughout State, but more common in the lowlands. S and edge, O, with brush & some trees.
654. P. cyanea (Linnaeus) 1766. Indigo Bunting. Colorín Azul. NM, fc – c, SL to 2500 m. mid-Sept. to late May. O, S edge. Winters throughout State, except in high mountains and N.E. corner, where it is transient – Sept. – Oct. and April. – May.
655. P. v. versicolor (Bonaparte) 1838. Varied Bunting. Colorín Morado. NM, fc – c, SL to 1200 m. late Sept – April. S and edge, thorn forest, O, H.
656. P. ciris ciris (Linnaeus) 1758. Painted Bunting. Colorín Sietecolores. NM, fc – c, SL to 1500 m. Sept. – 8 May (WJS). HF and edge, RF and edge, S and edge, O.
a. P. ciris pallidior Mearns 1911. This western subspecies has also been recorded in the State.
Sicalis luteola chrysops (Sclater) 1861. Grassland Yellow-Finch. Zacatero Amarillo. SR? fc – c. on coastal plain – Sept. – Mar.,
nec Emberizinae AOU
658. Volatinia jacarina splendens (Vieillot) 1817. Blue-black Grass Quit. Semillero Brincador. R, fc – c. SL to 1600 m. throughout the State except the high western mountains. O, often in scrub & second growth, but usually in grassland.
659. Tiaris olivacea pusilla (Swainson) 1827. Yellow-faced Grassquit. Semillero Olivaceo. R, c – SL – 1800 m. throughout lowlands of the State. HF edge, RF edge, S edge, O and scrub, and especially in grasslands.
660. Atlapetes p. pileatus (Wagler) 1831. Rufous-capped Brush-Finch. Saltón Gorirrufo. R, fc – c, 700 – 3000 m. only in the western mountains. O in POF, oak woodland, and upper HF.
661. Atlapetes b. brunneinucha (Lafresnaye) 1839. Chestnut-capped Brush-Finch. Saltón Gorricastaño. R, fc – c, in the western mountains south to the Cordoba-Orizaba region. 900 – 3000 m. POF, S = oakwoodland, and HF, and second-growth.
a. A. b. apertus Wetmore 1942. This isolated, endemic subspecies is only in Los Tuxtlas – 1200 – 400 m. RF and second-growth.
662. A. gutturalis albinucha (Lafresnaye and D’Orbigny 1838. White-naped Brush-Finch. Saltón Nuquiblanco. R, u. 900 – 2700 m. only in the western mountains. Pine forest, oak woodland, montane HF. Altitudinal migrant, down-slope in winter.
663. Haplospiza rustica uniformis Sclater & Salvin 1873. Slaty Finch. Fringilo Plomizo. R? at least formerly recorded, in the 19th century, but its recent (1982) collection in Michoacán suggests more field studies are needed in our State. WJS saw a ♀ bird in Jan. 1981, with Roland Wauer, below the Puerto del Aire, and above Acultzingo, which he was 90% sure was this species. Upper HF, with open areas and some trees.
Arremon aurantiirostris saturatus Cherrie 1891.
Orange-billed Sparrow. Rascador Piquinaranja. R, u, 2 specimen records from Presidio &
from 30 kms. SW of Tezonapa (in MLZ in
Arremonops rufivirgatus crassirostris (Ridgway) 1878. Olive Sparrow. Gorrión Oliváceo. This subspecies occurs from Córdoba &
Orizaba S.E. to
A. r. ridgwayi Sutton & Burleigh 1941. This subspecies occurs in northern
Pipilo ocai (
Pipilo m. maculates Swainson 1827. Spotted Towhee. Rascador Manchado. R, fc – c. in central western mountains 1000 –
3000 m. Pine forest, POF, oak
woodland. We restrict the Towhees of the
northern erythrophthalmus group to
wintering only in northern mainland
Pipilo fuscus toroi
Ammodramus sandwichensis savanna (
A. savannarum pratensis (Vieillot) 1817. Grasshopper Sparrow. Gorrión Chapulín. Three subspecies are recorded in the State of
a. A. s. perpallidus (Coves) 1872. NM
b. A. s. obscurus Nelson 1897 SR – S.E. Veracruz. We consider this a valid ssp, much darker throughout than bimaculatus; as always, fresh series are needed of both Mexican ssp.
Pooecetes gramineus confinis Baird 1858.
Vesper Sparrow. Gorrión
Coliblanco. NM, u – only recorded from
Zacualpilla (Mex. check-list, 1957: 369)
Chondestes grammacus strigatus Swainson 1827. Lark Sparrow.
Gorrión Arlequin. NM, u? Near Haycocotla (Mar, WJS),
673. Spizella passerina arizonae Coues 1872. Chipping Sparrow. Gorrión Cejiblanco. NM, fc – 1800 – 3000 m. in the western mountains, late Sept. – end April. POF with grass in clearings, oak woodland, and S with thickets.
a. S. p. mexicana Nelson 1899. This R sub-species (u) is often blown N. from the pine ridges of the middle Isthmus by violent “suradas” = 15 WJS sight records of singles to 4 – 5 birds each time.
S. pallida (Swainson) 1831. Clay-colored Sparrow. Gorrión Pálido. V, r.
Most probably wind-blown vagrants from the south coast in
S. wortheni Ridgway 1884.
Worthen's Sparrow. Gorrión de
Worthen. V? 2 records – a specimen taken at 2 km.W of El
Limon (west of Perote) on
676. Aimophila s. superciliosa Swainson 1837 (Oriturus AOU). Striped Sparrow. Zacatonero Rayado. R, fc. 1500 to 3000 m. in the western mountains: Las Vigas, Cofre de Perote. O = fields with bunch-grass in pine woodland, to open oak woodland with grass..
A. mysticalis (Hartlaub) 1852. Bridled Sparrow. Zacatonero Bigote-blanco. R, fc – c. only in west-central mountains,
900 – 1800 m. O with rocky substrate and
grass or shrubs. Most common on lower
(eastern) slope of Pico de Orizaba in
678. A. rufescens pyrgitoides (Lafresnaye) 1839. Rusty Sparrow. R, fc – c. SL to 2000 m. Not present at low altitudes in about the northern half of the State. POF, pine forest and edges, S and edges, in Los Tuxtlas in RF edges, S. More common in more open areas than in forest interior.
A. ruficeps boucardi (Sclater) 1857. Rufous-crowned Sparrow. Zacatonero Coronirrufo. R, fc – c. 900 – 3000 m. in western mountains
A. botterii botterii (Sclater) 1857. Botteri's Sparrow. Zacatonero
de Botteri. SR, fc – c. Breeds from northern
A. b. texana Phillips 1947. Breeds in extreme southern Texas &
Tamaulipas. Our only wintering records
were 3 birds netted and examined in the hand by WJS, and released, near
A. p. petenica (Salvin) 1863. Yellow-carpalled Sparrow. Zacatonero Aliamarillo. WJS maintains this form as a full species,
because we still have no intergradation with botterii and the simple fact that the species is found in a
different habitat: rain-forest edge and
overgrown, abandoned pastures. Further
Junco h. hyemalis (Linnaeus) 1758. Dark-eyed Junco. Junco Ojioscuro. V – one specimen record, netted at Playa Escondida
683. J. p. phaeonotus Wagler 1831. Yellow-eyed Junco. Junco Ojilumbre. R, fc – c, in the western mountains: 1200 – 3500 m. Pine forest, POF, occasionally oak woodland, but always with grassy clearings.
M. lincolnii (Audubon) 1834.
M. georgiana (Latham)
…. Swamp Sparrow. Gorrion Pantanero. NM, fc to central
686. M. melodia cf. mexicana Ridgway 1874 Song Sparrow. Gorrion Cantor. R, u? Small marshes in the western mountains (near Las Vigas and Perote, Pronatura). H.
Calcarius lapponicus Linnaeus 1758.
688. C. ornatus (Townsend) 1837. Chestnut-collared Longspur. Escribano Cuellicastaño. V – 1 specimen record: Valle de Orizaba, Sumichrast, 1869.
Spiza americana (Gmelin) 1789 Dickcissel.
Arrocero Americano. T, fc – a (occasionally), late Aug. – Nove, and April &
May. W.S. on migration, SL to
690. Dolichonyx oryzivorus (Linnaeus) 1758. Bobolink. Tordo Arrocero. V – 1 published record at Tecolutla, per PW (see Howell & Webb 1995: 734). TBL again.
Sturnella magna mexicana Sclater
1861. Eastern Meadowlark. Pradero Comun. R, fc – c. SL to
a. S. m. alticola Nelson 1900. R on plateau.
S. neglecta Audubon 1834.
Western Meadowlark. Pradero Occidental. NM, u – r.
Winters in northern
Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus (Bonaparte) 1826. Yellow-Headed
Blackbird. Tordo Cabeciamarillo. NM u, in extreme northern
694. Agelaius phoeniceus richmondi Nelson 1897. Red-winged Blackbird. Tordo Sargento. R, fc but local in S.E. Veracruz, SL to 1200 m. in Tuxtla and Uxpanapa regions.
A. p. megapotamus Oberholser 1919. This subspecies is R, fc in central &
Icterus g. galbula (Linnaeus) 1758. Northern Oriole. Bolsero
Norteno. NM, fc – c, SL to
I. bullockii (Swainson) 1827. Bullock’s Oriole. Bolsero de Abeille. R, u. in western
mountains – 1500 to
I. abeillei (Lesson) 1839. Abeille’s Oriole. Bolsero de Abeille. R, u, in western
mountains – 1500 to
I. gularis tamaulipensis Ridgway
1901. Altamira Oriole. Bolsero de Altamira. R, fc – c. SL to
I. graduacauda audubonii Girard
1841. Audubon’s Oriole. Bolsero
Cabecinegro. R, c – fc in northern and
707. Dives dives dives (Deppe) 1830. Melodious Blackbird. Tordo Cantor. R, fc – c, SL to 2000 m. throughout the State. O with trees & shrubs, S edge, HF edge, RF edge. In the mountains, in oak woodland edge.
708. Euphagus cyanocephalus (Wagler) 1829. Brewer's Blackbird. Tordo Migratorio. NM, fc – c. SL to 2500 m. 15 Sept. – 6 May. Now winters in Los Tuxtlas, common since 1987 on the coastal plain and in the Catemaco basin. O, especially grassy areas with cattle.
Quiscalus m. mexicanus (Gmelin) 1789. Great-tailed Grackle. Picho Zanate.
R, super-abundant! SL to at least
1500 m. Absent from high mountains and
dense forest. WJS & SH have seen
large flights of northern birds along the coast in fall and spring. In Los Tuxtlas, the population swells
considerably with wintering northern migrants in fall (October – Nov.) and
diminishes (slightly) in spring (April).
This is now the most abundant species in
710. Molothrus a. aeneas (Wagler) 1829. Red-eyed (“Bronzed”) Cowbird. Tordo Ojirrojo. R, fc – c; SL to 3000 m. In winter, in O, but from March to Sept. they are found in HF edge, RF edge, S (including swamp forest) where the ♀♀ search out nesting birds to lay their eggs, very often destroying the other species’ eggs by piercing the egg with her bill. WJS has a list of at least 33 species whose nests he has seen parasitized by these cowbirds. The list is undoubtedly much longer when more observations have been recorded.
Molothrus ater ater. Boddaert 1783. Brown-headed Cowbird. Tordo Cabecicafé. NM, fc – c, in the lowlands of N. Veracruz, SL
to 1400 m. (in valley above
Scaphidura oryzivora impacifica (Peters) 1929. Giant Cowbird. Vaquero Gigante. R, fc – c, SL to 800 m. This species has increased in southern
713. Amblycercus h. holosericeus (Deppe) 1830. Yellow-billed Cacique. Cacique Piquiclaro. R, fc – c, SL to 1500 m., most of the lowlands of the State. HF edge, RF edge, S, including swamp forest, O with trees & thickets.
714. Psarocolius w. wagleri (Gray & Mitchell) 1844. Chestnut-headed Oropendula. Zácua Cabecicastaña. R, now u – r, SL to 1200 m. Córdoba region southeast to Los Tuxtlas and Uxpanapa regions – now r. in Los Tuxtlas (and elsewhere?) due to greatly increased populations of the following species (see below). HF, RF, and edges. WJS considers it endangered in Los Tuxtlas.
715. P. montezuma (Lesson) 1830. Montezuma Oropendola. Zácua Común. R, fc – c, now very common in Los Tuxtlas. WJS has seen non-breeding flocks of 700& birds in the winter. They are now so populous, and begin to breed about 2, sometimes 3 weeks before the preceeding, that the Chestnut-headed Oropendolas have difficulty in finding appropriate nesting trees. HF and edge, RF and edge, S and edge, and O when feeding. They now roost in the trees of Catemaco and morning and evening flights are seen going & coming from their feeding grounds.
Family Passeridae nec “Fringillidae” AOU
Passer domesticus House Sparrow. Gorrión Doméstico. Introduced – now R, c, in every town &
city of the State. This species has
spread, since its introduction from Europe to
Carduelis pinus macroptera
(Bonaparte) 1851. Pine Siskin. Dominico Pinero. R, fc – c; 1800 –
718. C. n. notata DuBus 1847. Black-headed Siskin. Dominico Cabecinegro. R, fc to c; 900 – 3000 m. in the western mountains. Altitudinal migrant, coming downslope in winter to lower elevations. Pine forest, POF, oak woodland, down to montane HF in winter, O = grassy clearings in the forest.
719. C. tristis (Linnaeus) 1758. American Goldfinch. Dominico Americano. NM, u – fc, SL to 2000 (?) m. northern Veracruz. O, especially weedy fields.
C. t. pallida (Mearns) 1890. This western subspecies has been recorded
C. p. psaltria Say 1823.
Lesser Goldfinch. Dominico
Dorsioscuro. NM, fc – c SL to 1500 m in
Carpodacus m. mexicanus (Müller)
1776. House Finch. Fringílido Mexicano. R,
fc – c 1400 –
722. C. cassinii Baird 1854. Cassin's Finch. Fringilido de Cassin. V one record (Sartorius) at Mirador, above Huatusco.
723. Loxia curvirostra stricklandi Ridgway 1885. Red Crossbill. Picotuerto Rojo. R, fc 1800 – 3000 m in the western mountains.
724. Coccothraustes a. abeillei (Lesson) 1839. Hooded Grosbeak. Pepitero Encapuchado. R, u to fc 1000 to 3000 m in the western mountains.
C. vespertinus mexicanus (Chapman) 1898. Evening Grosbeak. Pepitero Norteño. R, u – r 1500 – 3000 m only on SW flank of the
Pico de Orizaba in
[nn1]Willy prefers that “State” be capitalized (perhaps as a proper pronoun?)
[nn2]Keep abbrevs. to keep it shorter? Change for consistency?
[nn3]Meters: m.s or ms. Or m.?
[p4]Perhaps a specific font should be used so these abbreviations stand out from the text more?
[p5]Lookout for “f” instead.
[nn6]I did not note any lowercase “v” notations – difficult to distinguish from “r” with Willy’s handwriting.
[p7]Was this supposed to be “D. and D. Pashley?”
[p8]Still to be determined…
[p9]This could be changed to italics, and blended with the above comment: “All foreign words except birds’ names have been italicized.”
[p10]This may be a registered or trademarked name.
[p11]This may be a registered or trademarked name.
[p12]I don’t remember what the distinction between parentheses and no parentheses is.
[p13]With period, or without?
[p14]From proofread of “duplicate” pages.
[p15]From proofread of other pages.
[p16]“locally to 1000 m.” in Los Tuxtlas?
[p17]Perhaps this should be left out until it is confirmed which records there are, and which records there are not.
[p18]… (UNAM 1997: pp?).
[p19]Unsure what exactly you intended to say with this addition.
[p20]Is this meant to be a small “v” for very rare, or a large “V” for vagrant?
[B21]Should Cassin be in parentheses?
[p22]Should this be a lower-case “v?”
[p23]I changed these from references to the bird number to the Latin name, for clarity and to avoid potential errors due to changes in the numbering.
[p24]Is this a Spanish word? Should this be explained?
[p25]Is this not redundant? Are the non-aerial types of overflights?
[p26]Should this be reworded to say “recorded from …”?
[p27]Why small “e”?
[nn29]need to clarify abbreviations for names.
[p30]Since this is the English common name, would you still want the Spanish diacritical marks?
[ME33]Meaning “B. salvini salvini”?
[p34]After reviewing this entry and a few others, I get the impression that you changed your meaning of “u” from “uncommon” to perhaps “usual?”
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